From the 2006 FDA Science Forum
N. V. Gopee1 , V. G. Desai1 , B. J. Miller1 , J. C. Fuscoe1 , W. Tong1 , H. Fang1 , W. G. Wamer2 , P. C. Howard1 , 1NCTR, Jefferson, AR, 2CFSAN, College Park, MD
Tattooing is increasing in popularity with more than 45 million Americans having at least one tattoo. This study explores the global gene expression profile in skin of female SKH-1 hairless mice following tattooing. Mice were: not tattooed; tattooed dorsal, longitudinally with 10% aqueous glycerol (vehicle); tattooed with 20% w/v cadmium sulfide (CdS) or Pigment Red 22 (PR22) in vehicle. Two weeks later, the mice were exposed for 13 weeks to 1.4 SED/day simulated solar light (SSL) (one-half the mice), then sacrificed and the tattooed skin removed and frozen. Gene expression was determined using an in-house oligonucleotide microarrays (20,000 genes). Gene expression data were analyzed using the FDA microarray data management, analysis and interpretation software, ArrayTrack. There was not a significant light effect on gene expression, and as a result the data from no-SSL and SSL treated animals were combined for the tattooed groups. A total of 109 genes were differentially expressed >1.5-fold for PR22 tattooed mice, of which 35 were upregulated. In CdS tattooed mice, 561 genes were differentially expressed >2-fold, of which 388 were upregulated. Only 29 of the differentially expressed genes were common to both tattoo pigments, 11 of which were upregulated. Analysis of the altered genes suggests there are changes in pathways involved in immunological and inflammatory responses, carcinogenesis, cell proliferation and cell death. The results suggest microarray analysis of RNA from tattooed skin can be an effective tool for investigating the impact of tattooing pigments on the skin and immune system.