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TITLE:  Development of an ion chromatography-inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry method to determine inorganic arsenic in liver from chickens treated with roxarsone
AUTHORS:  Conklin SD;Shockey N;Kubachka K;Howard KD;Carson MC;
YEAR:  2012
JOURNAL ABBREV:  J Agric Food Chem
JOURNAL FULL:  Journal of agricultural and food chemistry
ISSUE:  37
END PAGE:  9404
KEYWORDS:  Arsenic;Chickens;Chromatography;drug;Feed;Food;Food Safety;Laboratories;Liver;Maryland;Nutrition;Poultry;QUANTIFICATION;Safety;Swine;TISSUE;TISSUES;Ultrafiltration;United States;United States Food and Drug Administration;UNITED-STATES;
ABSTRACT:  Roxarsone, (4-hydroxy-3-nitrophenyl)arsonic acid, is an arsenic-containing compound that has been approved as a feed additive for poultry and swine since the 1940s; however, little information is available regarding residual arsenic species present in edible tissues. We developed a novel method for the extraction and quantification of arsenic species in chicken liver. A strongly basic solution solubilized the liver, and ultrafiltration removed macromolecules and particulate material. Ion chromatography separated the species [arsenite, arsenate, monomethylarsonic acid, dimethylarsinic acid, (4-hydroxy-3-aminophenyl)arsonic acid, (4-hydroxy-3-acetaminophenyl)arsonic acid, and roxarsone] in the extracts, which were then detected by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry. The extraction oxidized most arsenite to arsenate. For fortification concentrations at 2 mug kg(-1) and above, recoveries ranged from 70 to 120%, with relative standard deviations from 7 to 34%. We detected roxarsone, its 3-amino and 3-acetamido metabolites, inorganic arsenic, and additional unknown arsenic species in livers from roxarsone-treated chickens. Both the originating laboratory and a second laboratory validated the method
AFFILIATIONS:  Office of Regulatory Science, Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition, United States Food and Drug Administration, College Park, Maryland 20740, United States