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TITLE:  Antimicrobial susceptibility to azithromycin among Salmonella enterica isolates from the United States
AUTHORS:  Sjolund-Karlsson M;Joyce K;Blickenstaff K;Ball T;Haro J;Medalla FM;Fedorka-Cray P;Zhao S;Crump JA;Whichard JM;
YEAR:  2011
JOURNAL ABBREV:  Antimicrob Agents Chemother
JOURNAL FULL:  Antimicrobial agents and chemotherapy
END PAGE:  3989
KEYWORDS:  Ampicillin;Animals;antimicrobial;ANTIMICROBIAL RESISTANCE;Chloramphenicol;control;Disease;Food;FOOD ANIMALS;Humans;INFECTION;INFECTIONS;Meat;Research;retail meat;RETAIL MEATS;Salmonella;Salmonella enterica;Salmonella Infections;SEROTYPES;SUSCEPTIBILITY;SYSTEM;TRIMETHOPRIM-SULFAMETHOXAZOLE;United States;UNITED-STATES;
ABSTRACT:  Due to emerging resistance to traditional antimicrobial agents, such as ampicillin, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, and chloramphenicol, azithromycin is increasingly used for the treatment of invasive Salmonella infections. In the present study, 696 isolates of non-Typhi Salmonella collected from humans, food animals, and retail meats in the United States were investigated for antimicrobial susceptibility to azithromycin. Seventy-two Salmonella enterica serotype Typhi isolates from humans were also tested. For each isolate, MICs of azithromycin and 15 other antimicrobial agents were determined by broth microdilution. Among the non-Typhi Salmonella isolates, azithromycin MICs among human isolates ranged from 1 to 32 mug/ml, whereas the MICs among the animal and retail meat isolates ranged from 2 to 16 mug/ml and 4 to 16 mug/ml, respectively. Among Salmonella serotype Typhi isolates, the azithromycin MICs ranged from 4 to 16 mug/ml. The highest MIC observed in the present study was 32 mug/ml, and it was detected in three human isolates belonging to serotypes Kentucky, Montevideo, and Paratyphi A. Based on our findings, we propose an epidemiological cutoff value (ECOFF) for wild-type Salmonella of
AFFILIATIONS:  National Antimicrobial Resistance Monitoring System, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, CCID/NCZVED/DFBMD/EDLB, 1600 Clifton Road, Atlanta, GA 30329, USA. fwt4@cdc.gov