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TITLE:  Residue depletion of melamine and cyanuric acid in catfish and rainbow trout following oral administration
AUTHORS:  Reimschuessel R;Evans E;Andersen WC;Turnipseed SB;Karbiwnyk CM;Mayer TD;Nochetto C;Rummel NG;Gieseker CM;
YEAR:  2010
JOURNAL ABBREV:  J Vet Pharmacol Ther
JOURNAL FULL:  Journal of veterinary pharmacology and therapeutics
END PAGE:  182
KEYWORDS:  Absorption;Animal Feed;Animals;Body Weight;CARCINOGENICITY;Cats;Commerce;Dogs;drug;EXCRETION;FISH;Food;FOOD ANIMALS;Laboratories;rainbow trout;RAINBOW-TROUT;Rats;RENAL-FAILURE;residues;Safety;SINGLE;STONES;toxicity;Triazines;Trout;UROLITHIASIS;WEIGHT;
ABSTRACT:  The intentional addition of triazines such as melamine to animal feeds and the lack of information about residue accumulation in food animals caused global concerns for food safety during 2007 and 2008. We report the results of a good laboratory practices (GLP) study to determine melamine and cyanuric acid residues in catfish and trout filets harvested at 1, 3, 7, 14, 28, and 42 days after a single oral dose of 20 mg/kg body weight of melamine, cyanuric acid, or melamine and cyanuric acid together. Peak melamine concentrations were 12.73 mg/kg (ppm) in catfish (mean = 9.98), 12.26 mg/kg in trout (mean = 7.89) on day 1. Within 7 days (catfish) or 14 days (trout) residues were < 2.5 mg/kg, a level in foods accepted by many risk assessors worldwide to be unlikely to pose health risks to consumers. Peak cyanuric acid residues also occurred on day 1, 0.68 mg/kg in catfish (mean = 0.46), 2.59 mg/kg in trout (mean = 0.86). Cyanuric acid muscle residues were < 2.5 mg/kg by day 3. The half-lives for melamine and cyanuric acid ranged between 1 and 4 days. Renal crystals formed in fish given both melamine and cyanuric acid, persisting for weeks after the single dose
AFFILIATIONS:  US FDA, Coll Vet Med, Ctr Vet Med, Laurel, MD 20708 USAUS FDA, Anim Drugs Res Ctr, Denver Fed Ctr, Denver, CO USA