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TITLE:  Characterization of antimicrobial resistance in Salmonella enterica serotype Heidelberg isolated from food animals
AUTHORS:  Lynne AM;Kaldhone P;David D;White DG;Foley SL;
YEAR:  2009
JOURNAL ABBREV:  Foodborne Pathog Dis
JOURNAL FULL:  Foodborne pathogens and disease
END PAGE:  215
KEYWORDS:  Animal Feed;Animals;Anti-Bacterial Agents;Cattle;Chickens;Colony Count,Microbial;Dose-Response Relationship,Drug;drug effects;Drug Resistance,Bacterial;Drug Resistance,Multiple,Bacterial;drug therapy;Electrophoresis,Gel,Pulsed-Field;Food;genetics;Integrons;isolation & purification;Kanamycin;Microbial Sensitivity Tests;microbiology;pharmacology;Phenotype;Plasmids;Research;Salmonella;Salmonella enterica;Salmonella Food Poisoning;Salmonella Infections,Animal;Serotyping;Streptomycin;Swine;Tetracycline;Trimethoprim;
ABSTRACT:  Fifty-eight Salmonella enterica serovar Heidelberg isolates isolated from food animals were tested for antimicrobial susceptibilities and further characterized for select antimicrobial resistance genes, plasmid carriage, class 1 integrons, and genetic relatedness using pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). Seventy-two percent of isolates displayed resistance to at least one of the antimicrobial agents tested, while 24% exhibited resistance to eight or more antimicrobial agents. Resistance was most commonly observed to tetracycline (71%), streptomycin (62%), and kanamycin (52%). Isolates obtained from cattle and swine displayed the highest rates of resistance while isolates from chickens more often displayed susceptibility to the tested antimicrobials. When resistance was detected, a corresponding resistance gene was detected in 97.3% of the isolates. Thirteen percent of the isolates contained class 1 integrons containing at least one resistance gene, most often either the aadA or dhfrA genes, which are often associated with resistance to streptomycin and trimethoprim, respectively. Twenty isolates contained plasmids estimated to be at least 75 kb in size, 17 of which exhibited resistance to five or more antimicrobial agents. Thirty PFGE patterns were generated among the 58 isolates tested using XbaI, indicating extensive heterogeneity among this serotype across different animal origins. Results confirm the presence of multidrug-resistance (MDR) phenotypes among food animal isolates of serovar Heidelberg, especially those obtained from mammalian species. The observed MDR was typically associated with the presence of large plasmids
AFFILIATIONS:  National Farm Medicine Center, Marshfield Clinic Research Foundation, Marshfield, Wisconsin 54449, USA