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TITLE:  Antimicrobial resistance and genetic characterization of fluoroquinolone resistance of Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolated from canine infections
AUTHORS:  Rubin J;Walker RD;Blickenstaff K;Bodeis-Jones S;Zhao S;
YEAR:  2008
JOURNAL ABBREV:  Vet Microbiol
JOURNAL FULL:  Veterinary microbiology
VOLUME:  131
ISSUE:  40910
END PAGE:  172
KEYWORDS:  Aminoglycosides;Ampicillin;Animals;Anti-Bacterial Agents;Bacteria;beta-Lactams;Cefazolin;Ceftriaxone;chemistry;Chloramphenicol;Ciprofloxacin;Colony Count,Microbial;Dna;DNA,Bacterial;Dog Diseases;Dogs;Dose-Response Relationship,Drug;drug effects;Drug Resistance,Bacterial;drug therapy;Fluoroquinolones;genetics;Integrons;Kanamycin;Microbial Sensitivity Tests;microbiology;Mutation;Otitis;pharmacology;Point Mutation;Pseudomonas;Pseudomonas aeruginosa;Pseudomonas Infections;Pyoderma;Quinolones;Spectinomycin;Streptomycin;Tetracycline;therapeutic use;therapy;United States;veterinary;Veterinary Medicine;
ABSTRACT:  Infections with antimicrobial-resistant bacteria are a great challenge in both human and veterinary medicine. The purpose of this study was to determine antimicrobial susceptibility of 106 strains of Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolated from dogs with otitis and pyoderma from 2003 to 2006 in the United States. Three antimicrobial panels, including 6 classes and 32 antimicrobial agents, were used. A wide range of susceptibility patterns were noted with some isolates being resistant to between 8 and 28 (mean 16) of the antimicrobials tested. Among the beta-lactams, all isolates were resistant to ampicillin, cefoxitin, cefpodoxime, cephalothin and cefazolin followed by amoxicillin/clavulanic acid (99%), ceftiofur (97%), ceftriaxone (39%), cefotaxime (26%), and cefotaxime/clavulanic acid (20%), whereas less than 7% of isolates were resistant to ceftazidime/clavulanic acid, ceftazidime, piperacillin/tazobactam or cefepime. Two isolates were resistant to the carbapenems. Among the quinolones and fluoroquinolones, the most isolates were resistant to naladixic acid (96%), followed by orbifloxacin (52%), difloxacin (43%), enrofloxacin (31%), marbofloxacin (27%), gatifloxacin (23%), levofloxacin (21%), and ciprofloxacin (16%). Among the aminoglycosides, the most resistance was seen to kanamycin (90%), followed by streptomycin (69%), gentamicin (7%), and amikacin (3%). Of the remaining antimicrobials 100% of the isolates were resistant to chloramphenicol followed by tetracycline (98%), trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole (57%), and sulfisoxazole (51%). Point mutations were present in gyrA, gyrB, parC, and/or parE genes among 34 of the 102 naladixic acid-resistant isolates. Two isolates contained class 1 integrons carrying aadA gene conferring streptomycin and spectinomycin resistance. The findings suggest that many antimicrobial agents commonly used in companion animals may not constitute appropriate therapy for canine pseudomonas infections
AFFILIATIONS:  Department of Veterinary Microbiology, Western College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon S7N 5B4, Canada