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TITLE:  Campylobacter-induced interleukin-8 secretion in polarized human intestinal epithelial cells requires Campylobacter-secreted cytolethal distending toxin- and Toll-like receptor-mediated activation of NF-kappaB
AUTHORS:  Zheng J;Meng J;Zhao S;Singh R;Song W;
YEAR:  2008
JOURNAL FULL:  Infection and immunity
ISSUE:  10
END PAGE:  4508
KEYWORDS:  Bacterial Toxins;Campylobacter;Campylobacter coli;Campylobacter jejuni;Cell Line;Cytokines;Diarrhea;Endopeptidase K;Epithelial Cells;Food;Gene Deletion;genetics;Hot Temperature;Humans;immunology;Interleukin-8;Intestinal Mucosa;Maryland;metabolism;microbiology;Mutation;NF-kappa B;Protein Denaturation;Research;secretion;Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha;
ABSTRACT:  Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli colonize and infect the intestinal epithelium and cause acute inflammatory diarrhea. The intestinal epithelium serves as a physical barrier to, and a sensor of, bacterial infection by secreting proinflammatory cytokines. This study examined the mechanisms for Campylobacter-induced secretion of the proinflammatory chemokine interleukin-8 (IL-8) by using polarized T84 human colonic epithelial cells as a model. C. jejuni increased the secretion of both IL-8 and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha) in polarized epithelial cells. However, the increase in IL-8 secretion was independent of Campylobacter-stimulated TNF-alpha secretion. Polarized T84 cells secreted IL-8 predominantly to the basolateral medium independently of the inoculation direction. While there was a significant correlation between the levels of IL-8 secretion and Campylobacter invasion, all 11 strains tested increased IL-8 secretion by polarized T84 cells despite their differences in adherence, invasion, and transcytosis efficiencies. Cell-free supernatants of Campylobacter-T84-cell culture increased IL-8 secretion to levels similar to those induced by live bacterial inoculation. The ability of the supernatant to induce IL-8 secretion was reduced by flagellum and cytolethal distending toxin (CDT) gene mutants, treatment of the supernatant with protease K or heat, or treatment of T84 cells with the Toll-like receptor (TLR) inhibitor MyD88 inhibitory peptide or chloroquine. NF-kappaB inhibitors or cdtB mutation plus MyD88 inhibitor, but not flaA cdtB double mutations, abolished the ability of the supernatant to induce IL-8 secretion. Taken together, our results demonstrate that Campylobacter-induced IL-8 secretion requires functional flagella and CDT and depends on the activation of NF-kappaB through TLR signaling and CDT in human intestinal epithelial cells
AFFILIATIONS:  Department of Nutrition and Food Science, University of Maryland, College Park, Maryland 20742, USA