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TITLE:  Characterization of antimicrobial resistance among Escherichia coli O111 isolates of animal and human origin
AUTHORS:  White DG;Zhao S;McDermott PF;Ayers S;Gaines S;Friedman S;Wagner DD;Meng J;Needle D;Davis M;DebRoy C;
YEAR:  2002
JOURNAL ABBREV:  Microb Drug Resist
JOURNAL FULL:  Microbial drug resistance (Larchmont, N Y )
END PAGE:  146
KEYWORDS:  Ampicillin;analysis;Animals;Anti-Bacterial Agents;Chloramphenicol;Dna;DNA,Bacterial;drug effects;Drug Resistance,Microbial;Escherichia coli;Escherichia coli O157;Food;Genes,Bacterial;genetics;Humans;Integrins;Integrons;Kanamycin;Microbial Sensitivity Tests;pathogenicity;pharmacology;Phenotype;Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction;Ribotyping;Streptomycin;Sulfamethoxazole;Tetracycline;Trimethoprim;veterinary;Veterinary Medicine;Virulence;
ABSTRACT:  Fifty isolates of Escherichia coli serogroup O111 recovered from humans and various animal species over a 24-year period (1976-1999) were examined for typical virulence-associated factors and susceptibilities to antimicrobials of human and veterinary significance. Nine H (flagellar) types were identified including nonmotile (n = 24), 32 (n = 12), negative (n = 5), and 56 (n = 3). Thirty-five (70%) isolates possessed at least one Shiga-toxin-producing E. coli (STEC)-associated virulence determinants (eae, stxl, stx2, hlyA) via PCR analysis. Of these 35 isolates, 20 possessed eae, stxl, and hlyA genes, whereas three isolates possessed eae, stxl, stx2, and hylA genes. Multiple antibiotic resistance was observed in 70% of the 50 E. coli O111 isolates. The majority of isolates displayed resistance to streptomycin, sulfamethoxazole, tetracycline, and kanamycin. Bacterial resistance to ampicillin, gentamicin, chloramphenicol, trimethoprim and apramycin was also observed. Integrons were identified in 23 (46%) of the E. coli isolates assayed, with a 1-kb amplicon being most frequently observed. DNA sequencing of these integrons revealed the presence of the aadA gene, encoding resistance to streptomycin. Two integrons of 1.5 and 2 kb contained the aadA2 and either dfrI or dfrXII genes, encoding resistance to streptomycin and trimethoprim, respectively. Integrons were also identified from isolates dating back to 1982. Isolates were further genetically characterized via ribotyping, which identified 15 distinct ribogroups, with 62% of isolates clustering into four major ribogroups. Certain riboprint patterns from different animal species, including humans, were observed in isolates spanning the 24-year collection period, suggesting the dissemination of specialized pathogenic O111 clones
AFFILIATIONS:  Center for Veterinary Medicine, U.S. Food and Drug Administration, Laurel, MD 20708, USA. dwhite@cvm.fda.gov