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Article, Chapter, or Book Title:  A No Observable Adverse Effects Level (NOAEL) for pigs fed melamine and cyanuric acid
Author(s):  Stine CB, Reimschuessel R, Gieseker CM, Evans ER, Mayer TD, Hasbrouck NR, Tall E, Boehmer J, Gamboa da Costa G, Ward JL
Year:  2011
Journal Abbrev, Book Title, or Conference:  Regulatory Toxicology and Pharmacology
Journal Full Name:  Regulatory Toxicology and Pharmacology
Issue:  3
Volume:  60
Start Page:  363
End Page:  372
Key Words:  melamine, pigs, cyanuric acid, NOAEL, kidney, triazine, feed
Abstract:  This study investigated the toxicity caused by melamine and cyanuric acid in pigs as limited data were available for risk assessment in response to the 2008 Chinese milk contamination event. Male weanling pigs were fed melamine, cyanuric acid, or melamine and cyanuric acid combined for 7 days (dose range finding study) or for 28 days (main study). The 28 day NOAEL was 1.0 mg/kg bw/day which corresponds to 25 ppm of melamine and 25 ppm of cyanuric acid in feed. These data support the levels of no concern set in risk assessments prepared worldwide for human food as well as for infant formula.