(a) Children who are wards of the State or any other agency, institution, or entity can be included in clinical investigations approved under 50.53 or 50.54 only if such clinical investigations are:
(1) Related to their status as wards; or
(2) Conducted in schools, camps, hospitals, institutions, or similar settings in which the majority of children involved as subjects are not wards.
(b) If the clinical investigation is approved under paragraph (a) of this section, the IRB must require appointment of an advocate for each child who is a ward.
(1) The advocate will serve in addition to any other individual acting on behalf of the child as guardian or in loco parentis.
(2) One individual may serve as advocate for more than one child.
(3) The advocate must be an individual who has the background and experience to act in, and agrees to act in, the best interest of the child for the duration of the child's participation in the clinical investigation.
(4) The advocate must not be associated in any way (except in the role as advocate or member of the IRB) with the clinical investigation, the investigator(s), or the guardian organization.