(a) Identity. (1) The color additive canthaxanthin is [beta]-carotene-4,4'-dione.
(2) Color additive mixtures for food use made with canthaxanthin may contain only those diluents that are suitable and that are listed in this subpart as safe for use in color additive mixtures for coloring foods.
(b) Specifications. Canthaxanthin shall conform to the following specifications and shall be free from impurities other than those named to the extent that such other impurities may be avoided by good manufacturing practice:
Physical state, solid.
1 percent solution in chloroform, complete and clear.
Melting range (decomposition), 207 deg. C. to 212 deg. C. (corrected).
Loss on drying, not more than 0.2 percent.
Residue on ignition, not more than 0.2 percent.
Total carotenoids other than trans-canthaxanthin, not more than 5 percent.
Lead, not more than 10 parts per million.
Arsenic, not more than 3 parts per million.
Mercury, not more than 1 part per million.
Assay, 96 to 101 percent.
(c) Use and restrictions. (1) The color additive canthaxanthin may be safely used for coloring foods generally subject to the following restrictions:
(i) The quantity of canthaxanthin does not exceed 30 milligrams per pound of solid or semisolid food or per pint of liquid food; and
(ii) It may not be used to color foods for which standards of identity have been promulgated under section 401 of the act unless added color is authorized by such standards.
(2) Canthaxanthin may be safely used in broiler chicken feed to enhance the yellow color of broiler chicken skin in accordance with the following conditions: The quantity of canthaxanthin incorporated in the feed shall not exceed 4.41 milligrams per kilogam (4 grams per ton) of complete feed to supplement other known sources of xanthophyll and associated carotenoids to accomplish the intended effect.
(3) Canthaxanthin may be safely used in the feed of salmonid fish in accordance with the following prescribed conditions:
(i) Canthaxanthin may be added to the fish feed only in the form of a stabilized color additive mixture;
(ii) The color additive is used to enhance the pink to orange-red color of the flesh of salmonid fish; and
(iii) The quantity of color additive in feed shall not exceed 80 milligrams per kilogram (72 grams per ton) of finished feed.
(d) Labeling requirements. (1) The labeling of the color additive and any mixture prepared therefrom intended solely or in part for coloring purposes shall conform to the requirements of 70.25 of this chapter.
(2) For purposes of coloring fish, the labeling of the color additive and any premixes prepared therefrom shall bear expiration dates (established through generally accepted stability testing methods) for the sealed and open container, other information required by 70.25 of this chapter, and adequate directions to prepare a final product complying with the limitations prescribed in paragraph (c)(3) of this section.
(3) The presence of the color additive in finished fish feed prepared according to paragraph (c)(3) of this section shall be declared in accordance with 501.4 of this chapter.
(4) The presence of the color additive in salmonid fish that have been fed feeds containing canthaxanthin shall be declared in accordance with 101.22(b), (c), and (k)(2), and 101.100(a)(2) of this chapter.
(e) Exemption from certification. Certification of this color additive is not necessary for the protection of the public health, and therefore batches thereof are exempt from the certification requirements of section 721(c) of the act.
[42 FR 15643, Mar. 22, 1977, as amended at 50 FR 47534, Nov. 19, 1985; 63 FR 14817, Mar. 27, 1998]