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U.S. Department of Health and Human Services

CFR - Code of Federal Regulations Title 21

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Help | More About 21CFR
[Code of Federal Regulations]
[Title 21, Volume 1]
[Revised as of April 1, 2013]
[CITE: 21CFR1]





TITLE 21--FOOD AND DRUGS
CHAPTER I--FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION
DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES
SUBCHAPTER A--GENERAL
 
PART 1GENERAL ENFORCEMENT REGULATIONS
 

Subpart K--Administrative Detention of Food for Human or Animal Consumption

 General Provisions

Sec. 1.377 What definitions apply to this subpart?

The definitions of terms that appear in section 201 of the act (21 U.S.C. 321) apply when the terms are used in this subpart. In addition, for the purposes of this subpart:

Act means the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act.

Authorized FDA representative means an FDA District Director in whose district the article of food involved is located or an FDA official senior to such director.

Calendar day means every day shown on the calendar.

Food has the meaning given in section 201(f) of the act (21 U.S.C. 321(f)). Examples of food include, but are not limited to, fruits, vegetables, fish, dairy products, eggs, raw agricultural commodities for use as food or components of food, animal feed, including pet food, food and feed ingredients and additives, including substances that migrate into food from food packaging and other articles that contact food, dietary supplements and dietary ingredients, infant formula, beverages, including alcoholic beverages and bottled water, live food animals, bakery goods, snack foods, candy, and canned foods.

Perishable food means food that is not heat-treated; not frozen; and not otherwise preserved in a manner so as to prevent the quality of the food from being adversely affected if held longer than 7 calendar days under normal shipping and storage conditions.

We means the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA).

Working day means any day from Monday through Friday, excluding Federal holidays.

You means any person who received the detention order or that person's representative.

Sec. 1.378 What criteria does FDA use to order a detention?

An officer or qualified employee of FDA may order the detention of any article of food that is found during an inspection, examination, or investigation under the act if the officer or qualified employee has reason to believe that the article of food is adulterated or misbranded.

[76 FR 25541, May 5, 2011]

Sec. 1.379 How long may FDA detain an article of food?

(a) FDA may detain an article of food for a reasonable period that may not exceed 20 calendar days after the detention order is issued. However, an article may be detained for 10 additional calendar days if a greater period of time is required to institute a seizure or injunction action. The authorized FDA representative may approve the additional 10-calendar day detention period at the time the detention order is issued, or at any time within the 20-calendar day period by amending the detention order.

(b) The entire detention period may not exceed 30 calendar days.

(c) An authorized FDA representative may, in accordance with 1.384, terminate a detention order before the expiration of the detention period.

Sec. 1.380 Where and under what conditions must the detained article of food be held?

(a) You must hold the detained article of food in the location and under the conditions specified by FDA in the detention order.

(b) If FDA determines that removal to a secure facility is appropriate, the article of food must be removed to a secure facility. A detained article of food remains under detention before, during, and after movement to a secure facility. FDA will also state in the detention order any conditions of transportation applicable to the detained article.

(c) If FDA directs you to move the detained article of food to a secure facility, you must receive a modification of the detention order under 1.381(c) before you move the detained article of food to a secure facility.

(d) You must ensure that any required tags or labels under 1.382 accompany the detained article during and after movement. The tags or labels must remain with the article of food until FDA terminates the detention order or the detention period expires, whichever occurs first, unless otherwise permitted by the authorized FDA representative.

(e) The movement of an article of food in violation of a detention order issued under 1.393 is a prohibited act under section 301 of the act (21 U.S.C. 331).

Sec. 1.381 May a detained article of food be delivered to another entity or transferred to another location?

(a) An article of food subject to a detention order under this subpart may not be delivered under the execution of a bond. Notwithstanding section 801(b) of the act (21 U.S.C. 381(b)), while any article of food is subject to a detention order under section 304(h) of the act (21 U.S.C. 334(h)), it may not be delivered to any of its importers, owners, or consignees. This section does not preclude movement at FDA's direction of imported food to a secure facility under an appropriate Customs' bond when that bond is required by Customs' law and regulation.

(b) Except as provided in paragraph (c) of this section, no person may transfer a detained article of food within or from the place where it has been ordered detained, or from the place to which it was removed, until an authorized FDA representative releases the article of food under 1.384 or the detention period expires under 1.379, whichever occurs first.

(c) The authorized FDA representative may approve, in writing, a request to modify a detention order to permit movement of a detained article of food for any of the following purposes:

(1) To destroy the article of food,

(2) To move the detained article of food to a secure facility under the terms of a detention order,

(3) To maintain or preserve the integrity or quality of the article of food, or

(4) For any other purpose that the authorized FDA representative believes is appropriate in the case.

(d) You must submit your request for modification of the detention order in writing to the authorized FDA representative who approved the detention order. You must state in your request the reasons for movement; the exact address of and location in the new facility (or the new location within the same facility) where the detained article of food will be transferred; an explanation of how the new address and location will be secure, if FDA has directed that the article be detained in a secure facility; and how the article will be held under any applicable conditions described in the detention order. If you are requesting modification of a detention order for the purpose of destroying the detained article of food, you also must submit a verified statement identifying the ownership or proprietary interest you have in the detained article of food, in accordance with Supplemental Rule C to the "Federal Rules of Civil Procedure."

(e) If FDA approves a request for modification of a detention order, the article may be transferred but remains under detention before, during, and after the transfer. FDA will state any conditions of transportation applicable to the detained article. You may not transfer a detained article of food without FDA supervision unless FDA has declined in writing to supervise the transfer. If FDA has declined in writing to supervise the transfer of a detained article, you must immediately notify in writing the authorized FDA representative who approved the modification of the detention order that the article of food has reached its new location, and the specific location of the detained article within the new location. Such written notification may be in the form of a fax, e-mail, or other form as agreed to by the authorized FDA representative.

(f) You must ensure that any required tags or labels under 1.382 accompany the detained article during and after movement. The tags or labels must remain with the article of food until FDA terminates the detention order or the detention period expires, whichever occurs first, unless otherwise permitted by the authorized FDA representative who approves the modification of a detention order under this section.

(g) The transfer of an article of food in violation of a detention order issued under 1.393 is a prohibited act under section 301 of the act.

Sec. 1.382 What labeling or marking requirements apply to a detained article of food?

The officer or qualified employee of FDA issuing a detention order under 1.393 may label or mark the detained article of food with official FDA tags or labels that include the following information:

(a) A statement that the article of food is detained by FDA in accordance with section 304(h) of the act;

(b) A statement that the article of food must not be consumed, moved, altered, or tampered with in any manner for the period shown, without the written permission of an authorized FDA representative;

(c) A statement that the violation of a detention order or the removal or alteration of the tag or label is a prohibited act, punishable by fine or imprisonment or both; and

(d) The detention order number, the date and hour of the detention order, the detention period, and the name of the officer or qualified employee of FDA who issued the detention order.

Sec. 1.383 What expedited procedures apply when FDA initiates a seizure action against a detained perishable food?

If FDA initiates a seizure action under section 304(a) of the act against a perishable food subject to a detention order under this subpart, FDA will send the seizure recommendation to the Department of Justice (DOJ) within 4 calendar days after the detention order is issued, unless extenuating circumstances exist. If the fourth calendar day is not a working day, FDA will advise the DOJ of its plans to recommend a seizure action on the last working day before the fourth calendar day and send the recommendation as soon as practicable on the first working day that follows. For purposes of this section, an extenuating circumstance includes, but is not limited to, instances when the results of confirmatory testing or other evidentiary development requires more than 4 calendar days to complete.

Sec. 1.384 When does a detention order terminate?

If FDA terminates a detention order or the detention period expires, an authorized FDA representative will issue a detention termination notice releasing the article of food to any person who received the detention order or that person's representative and will remove, or authorize in writing the removal of, the required labels or tags. If FDA fails to issue a detention termination notice and the detention period expires, the detention is deemed to be terminated.

 How Does FDA Order a Detention?

Sec. 1.391 Who approves a detention order?

An authorized FDA representative,i.e. , the FDA District Director in whose district the article of food involved is located or an FDA official senior to such director, must approve a detention order. If prior written approval is not feasible, prior oral approval must be obtained and confirmed in writing as soon as possible.

Sec. 1.392 Who receives a copy of the detention order?

(a) FDA must issue the detention order to the owner, operator, or agent in charge of the place where the article of food is located. If the owner of the article of food is different from the owner, operator, or agent in charge of the place where the article is detained, FDA must provide a copy of the detention order to the owner of the article of food if the owner's identity can be determined readily.

(b) If FDA issues a detention order for an article of food located in a vehicle or other carrier used to transport the detained article of food, FDA also must provide a copy of the detention order to the shipper of record and the owner and operator of the vehicle or other carrier, if their identities can be determined readily.

Sec. 1.393 What information must FDA include in the detention order?

(a) FDA must issue the detention order in writing, in the form of a detention notice, signed and dated by the officer or qualified employee of FDA who has reason to believe that such article of food is adulterated or misbranded.

(b) The detention order must include the following information:

(1) The detention order number;

(2) The date and hour of the detention order;

(3) Identification of the detained article of food;

(4) The period of the detention;

(5) A statement that the article of food identified in the order is detained for the period shown;

(6) A brief, general statement of the reasons for the detention;

(7) The address and location where the article of food is to be detained and the appropriate storage conditions;

(8) Any applicable conditions of transportation of the detained article of food;

(9) A statement that the article of food is not to be consumed, moved, altered, or tampered with in any manner during the detention period, unless the detention order is first modified under 1.381(c);

(10) The text of section 304(h) of the act and 1.401 and 1.402;

(11) A statement that any informal hearing on an appeal of a detention order must be conducted as a regulatory hearing under part 16 of this chapter, with certain exceptions described in 1.403;

(12) The mailing address, telephone number, e-mail address, and fax number of the FDA district office and the name of the FDA District Director in whose district the detained article of food is located;

(13) A statement indicating the manner in which approval of the detention order was obtained,i.e. , verbally or in writing; and

(14) The name and the title of the authorized FDA representative who approved the detention order.

[69 FR 31701, June 4, 2004, as amended at 76 FR 25541, May 5, 2011]

 What Is the Appeal Process for a Detention Order?

Sec. 1.401 Who is entitled to appeal?

Any person who would be entitled to be a claimant for the article of food, if seized under section 304(a) of the act, may appeal a detention order as specified in 1.402. Procedures for establishing entitlement to be a claimant for purposes of section 304(a) of the act are governed by Supplemental Rule C to the "Federal Rules of Civil Procedure."

Sec. 1.402 What are the requirements for submitting an appeal?

(a) If you want to appeal a detention order, you must submit your appeal in writing to the FDA District Director, in whose district the detained article of food is located, at the mailing address, e-mail address, or fax number identified in the detention order according to the following applicable timeframes:

(1)Perishable food: If the detained article is a perishable food, as defined in 1.377, you must file an appeal within 2 calendar days of receipt of the detention order.

(2)Nonperishable food: If the detained article is not a perishable food, as defined in 1.377, you must file a notice of an intent to request a hearing within 4 calendar days of receipt of the detention order. If the notice of intent is not filed within 4 calendar days, you will not be granted a hearing. If you have not filed a timely notice of intent to request a hearing, you may file an appeal without a hearing request. Whether or not it includes a request for hearing, your appeal must be filed within 10 calendar days of receipt of the detention order.

(b) Your request for appeal must include a verified statement identifying your ownership or proprietary interest in the detained article of food, in accordance with Supplemental Rule C to the "Federal Rules of Civil Procedure."

(c) The process for the appeal of a detention order under this section terminates if FDA institutes either a seizure action under section 304(a) of the act or an injunction under section 302 of the act (21 U.S.C. 276) regarding the article of food involved in the detention order.

(d) As part of the appeals process, you may request an informal hearing. Your request for a hearing must be in writing and must be included in your request for an appeal specified in paragraph (a) of this section. If you request an informal hearing, and FDA grants your request, the hearing will be held within 2 calendar days after the date the appeal is filed.

Sec. 1.403 What requirements apply to an informal hearing?

If FDA grants a request for an informal hearing on an appeal of a detention order, FDA must conduct the hearing in accordance with part 16 of this chapter, except that:

(a) The detention order under 1.393, rather than the notice under 16.22(a) of this chapter, provides notice of opportunity for a hearing under this section and is part of the administrative record of the regulatory hearing under 16.80(a) of this chapter;

(b) A request for a hearing under this section must be addressed to the FDA District Director in whose district the article of food involved is located;

(c) The provision in 16.22(b) of this chapter, providing that a person not be given less than 3 working days after receipt of notice to request a hearing, does not apply to a hearing under this subpart;

(d) The provision in 16.24(e) of this chapter, stating that a hearing may not be required to be held at a time less than 2 working days after receipt of the request for a hearing, does not apply to a hearing under this subpart;

(e) Section 1.406, rather than 16.24(f) of this chapter, describes the statement that will be provided to an appellant where a detention order is based on classified information;

(f) Section 1.404, rather than 16.42(a) of this chapter, describes the FDA employees,e.g. , Regional Food and Drug Directors or other officials senior to a District Director, who preside at hearings under this subpart;

(g) The presiding officer may require that a hearing conducted under this section be completed within 1 calendar day, as appropriate;

(h) Section 16.60(e) and (f) of this chapter does not apply to a hearing under this subpart. The presiding officer must prepare a written report of the hearing. All written material presented at the hearing will be attached to the report. The presiding officer must include as part of the report of the hearing a finding on the credibility of witnesses (other than expert witnesses) whenever credibility is a material issue, and must include a proposed decision, with a statement of reasons. The hearing participant may review and comment on the presiding officer's report within 4 hours of issuance of the report. The presiding officer will then issue the final agency decision.

(i) Section 16.80(a)(4) of this chapter does not apply to a regulatory hearing under this subpart. The presiding officer's report of the hearing and any comments on the report by the hearing participant under 1.403(h) are part of the administrative record.

(j) No party shall have the right, under 16.119 of this chapter to petition the Commissioner of Food and Drugs for reconsideration or a stay of the presiding officer's final agency decision.

(k) If FDA grants a request for an informal hearing on an appeal of a detention order, the hearing must be conducted as a regulatory hearing pursuant to regulation in accordance with part 16 of this chapter, except that 16.95(b) does not apply to a hearing under this subpart. With respect to a regulatory hearing under this subpart, the administrative record of the hearing specified in 16.80(a)(1), (a)(2), (a)(3), and (a)(5), and 1.403(i) constitutes the exclusive record for the presiding officer's final decision on an administrative detention. For purposes of judicial review under 10.45 of this chapter, the record of the administrative proceeding consists of the record of the hearing and the presiding officer's final decision.

Sec. 1.404 Who serves as the presiding officer for an appeal, and for an informal hearing?

The presiding officer for an appeal, and for an informal hearing, must be an FDA Regional Food and Drug Director or another FDA official senior to an FDA District Director.

Sec. 1.405 When does FDA have to issue a decision on an appeal?

(a) The presiding officer must issue a written report that includes a proposed decision confirming or revoking the detention by noon on the fifth calendar day after the appeal is filed; after your 4 hour opportunity for submitting comments under 1.403(h), the presiding officer must issue a final decision within the 5-calendar day period after the appeal is filed. If FDA either fails to provide you with an opportunity to request an informal hearing, or fails to confirm or terminate the detention order within the 5-calendar day period, the detention order is deemed terminated.

(b) If you appeal the detention order, but do not request an informal hearing, the presiding officer must issue a decision on the appeal confirming or revoking the detention within 5 calendar days after the date the appeal is filed. If the presiding officer fails to confirm or terminate the detention order during such 5-calendar day period, the detention order is deemed terminated.

(c) If you appeal the detention order and request an informal hearing and your hearing request is denied, the presiding officer must issue a decision on the appeal confirming or revoking the detention within 5 calendar days after the date the appeal is filed. If the presiding officer fails to confirm or terminate the detention order during such 5-calendar day period, the detention order is deemed terminated.

(d) If the presiding officer confirms a detention order, the article of food continues to be detained until we terminate the detention under 1.384 or the detention period expires under 1.379, whichever occurs first.

(e) If the presiding officer terminates a detention order, or the detention period expires, FDA must terminate the detention order as specified under 1.384.

(f) Confirmation of a detention order by the presiding officer is considered a final agency action for purposes of 5 U.S.C. 702.

Sec. 1.406 How will FDA handle classified information in an informal hearing?

Where the credible evidence or information supporting the detention order is classified under the applicable Executive order as requiring protection from unauthorized disclosure in the interest of national security ("classified information"), FDA will not provide you with this information. The presiding officer will give you notice of the general nature of the information and an opportunity to offer opposing evidence or information, if he or she may do so consistently with safeguarding the information and its source. If classified information was used to support the detention, then any confirmation of such detention will state whether it is based in whole or in part on that classified information.

Authority: 15 U.S.C. 1333, 1453, 1454, 1455, 4402; 19 U.S.C. 1490, 1491; 21 U.S.C. 321, 331, 333, 334, 335a, 343, 350c, 350d, 352, 355, 360b, 362, 371, 374, 381, 382, 387, 387a, 387c, 393; 42 U.S.C. 216, 241, 243, 262, 264.
Source: 42 FR 15553, Mar. 22, 1977, unless otherwise noted.

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