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U.S. Department of Health and Human Services

CFR - Code of Federal Regulations Title 21

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Help | More About 21CFR
[Code of Federal Regulations]
[Title 21, Volume 1]
[Revised as of April 1, 2014]
[CITE: 21CFR71]





TITLE 21--FOOD AND DRUGS
CHAPTER I--FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION
DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES
SUBCHAPTER A--GENERAL
 
PART 71COLOR ADDITIVE PETITIONS
 

Subpart A--General Provisions

Sec. 71.1 Petitions.

(a) Any interested person may propose the listing of a color additive for use in or on any food, drug, or cosmetic or for coloring the human body. Such proposal shall be made in a petition in the form prescribed in paragraph (c) of this section. The petition shall be submitted in triplicate (quadruplicate, if intended uses include uses in meat, meat food product, or poultry product). If any part of the material submitted is in a foreign language, it shall be accompanied by an accurate and complete English translation. The petitioner shall state the post-office address in the United States to which published notices or orders issued or objections filed pursuant to section 721 of the act may be sent.

(b) Pertinent information may be incorporated in, and will be considered as part of, a petition on the basis of specific reference to such information submitted to and retained in the files of the Food and Drug Administration. However, any reference to unpublished information furnished by a person other than the applicant will not be considered unless use of such information is authorized in a written statement signed by the person who submitted the information. Any reference to published information offered in support of a color additive petition should be accompanied by reprints or photostatic copies of such references.

(c) Petitions shall include the following data and be submitted in the following form:

_________ (Date)

Name of petitioner

Post-office address

Name of color additive and proposed use

Office of Food Additive Safety (HFS-200),

Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition,

Food and Drug Administration,

5100 Paint Branch Pkwy.,

College Park, MD 20740

Dear Sir:

Petitioner submits this pursuant to section 721(b)(1) of the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act requesting listing by the Commissioner of the color additive _____ as suitable and safe for use in or on _____ subject to the conditions that _______. [Petitioner may propose a listing for general use in food, drugs, or cosmetics or, if such general listing is not believed suitable and safe, the petitioner shall describe the conditions under which he believes the additive can be safely used and for which it will be suitable. These conditions may include tolerance limitations, specifications as to the manner in which the additive may be added or used, and directions and other labeling or packaging safeguards that should be applied. The level of use proposed should not be higher than reasonably required to accomplish the intended color effect.]

Attached hereto, in triplicate (quadruplicate, if intended uses include uses in meat, meat food product, or poultry product), and constituting a part of this petition are the following:

A. The name and all pertinent information concerning the color additive, including chemical identity and composition of the color additive, its physical, chemical, and biological properties, and specifications prescribing its component(s) and identifying and limiting the reaction byproducts and other impurities.

The petition shall contain a description of the chemical and physical tests relied upon to identify the color additive and shall contain a full description of the methods used in, and the facilities and controls used for, the production of the color additive. These shall establish that it is a substance of reproducible composition. Alternative methods and controls and variations in methods and controls, within reasonable limits, that do not affect the characteristics of the substance or the reliability of the controls may be specified.

The petition shall supply a list of all substances used in the synthesis, extraction, or other method of preparation of any straight color, regardless of whether they undergo chemical change in the process. Each substance should be identified by its common or usual name and its complete chemical name, using structural formulas when necessary for specific identification. If any proprietary preparation is used as a component, the proprietary name should be followed by a complete quantitive statement of composition. Reasonable alternatives for any listed substance may be specified.

If the petitioner does not himself perform all the manufacturing, processing, and packing operations for a color additive, the petitioner shall identify each person who will perform a part of such operations and designate the part.

The petition shall include stability data, and, if the data indicate that it is needed to insure the identity, strength, quality, or purity of the color additive, the expiration period that will be employed as well as any packaging and labeling precautions needed to preserve stability.

B. The amount of the color additive proposed for use and the color effect intended to be achieved, together with all directions, recommendations, and suggestions regarding the proposed use, as well as specimens of the labeling proposed for the color additive. If the color effect results or may reasonably be expected to result from use of the color additive in packaging material, the petitioner shall show how this may occur and what residues may reasonably be anticipated.

Typewritten or other draft-labeling copy will be accepted for consideration of the petition provided final printed labeling identical in content to the draft copy is submitted as soon as available, and prior to the marketing of the color additive. The printed labeling shall conform in prominence and conspicuousness with the requirements of the act.

If the color additive is one for which a tolerance limitation is required to assure its safety, the level of use proposed should be no higher than the amount reasonably required to accomplish the intended physical or other technical effect, even though the safety data may support a higher tolerance. If the safety data will not support the use of the amount of the color additive reasonably needed to accomplish the desired color effect, the requested tolerance will not be established. Petitioners are expected to propose the use of color additives in accordance with sound color chemistry.

C.1. A description of practicable methods to determine the pure color and all intermediates, subsidiary colors, and other components of the color additive.

2. A description of practicable methods to determine the amount of the color additive in any raw, processed, and/or finished food, drug, or cosmetic in which use of the color additive is proposed. (The tests proposed shall be those that can be used for food, drug, or cosmetic control purposes and can be applied with consistent results by any properly equipped laboratory and trained personnel.)

3. A description of methods for identification and determination of any substance formed in or on such food, drug, or cosmetic because of the use of the color additive. (If it is the petitioner's view that any such method would not be needed, under the terms of section 721(b)(5)(A)(iv), a statement shall be submitted in lieu of methods as to the basis for such view.)

D. Full reports of investigation made with respect to the safety of the color additive.

(A petition will be regarded as incomplete unless it includes full reports of adequate tests reasonably applicable to show whether or not the color additive will be safe for its intended use. The reports ordinarily should include detailed data derived from appropriate animal and other biological experiments in which the methods used and the results obtained are clearly set forth. The petition shall not omit without explanation any data that would influence the evaluation of the safety of the color additive).

E. Complete data which will allow the Commissioner to consider, among other things, the probable consumption of, and/or other relevant exposure from the additive and of any substance formed in or on food, drugs, or cosmetics because of such additive; and the cumulative effect, if any, of such additive in the diet of man or animals, taking into account the same or any chemically or pharmacologically related substance or substances in the diet including, but not limited to food additives and pesticide chemicals for which tolerances or exemptions from tolerances have been established.

F. Proposed tolerances and other limitations on the use of the color additive, if tolerances and limitations are required in order to insure its safety. A petitioner may include a proposed regulation.

G. If exemption from batch certification is requested, the reasons why it is believed such certification is not necessary (including supporting data to establish the safety of the intended use).

H. If submitting a petition to alter an existing regulation issued pursuant to section 721(b) of the act, full information on each proposed change that is to be made in the original regulation must be submitted. The petition may omit statements made in the original petition concerning which no change is proposed. A supplemental petition must be submitted for any change beyond the variations provided for in the original petition and the regulation issued on the basis of the original petition.

I. The prescribed fee of $______ for admitting the color additive to listing is enclosed (unless there is an advance deposit adequate to cover the fee).

(Petitioner)

By _______ (Indicate authority)

J. The petitioner is required to submit either a claim for categorical exclusion under 25.30 or 25.32 of this chapter or an environmental assessment under 25.40 of this chapter.

(d) The petitioner will be notified of the date on which his petition is filed; and an incomplete petition, or one that has not been submitted in triplicate, will be retained but not filed. A petition shall be retained but shall not be filed if any of the data listed in the above form are lacking or are not set forth so as to be readily understood or if the prescribed fee has not been submitted. The petitioner will be notified in what respects his petition is incomplete.

(e) The petition must be signed by the petitioner or by his attorney or authorized agent, who is a resident of the United States.

(f) The data specified under the several lettered headings should be submitted on separate sheets or sets of sheets, suitably identified. If such data have already been submitted with an earlier application, the present petition may incorporate it by specific reference to the earlier petition.

(g) If nonclinical laboratory studies are involved, petitions filed with the Commissioner under section 721(b) of the act shall include with respect to each nonclinical study contained in the petition, either a statement that the study was conducted in compliance with the good laboratory practice regulations set forth in part 58 of this chapter, or, if the study was not conducted in compliance with such regulations, a brief statement of the reason for the noncompliance.

(h) [Reserved]

(i) If clinical investigations involving human subjects are involved, petitions filed with the Commissioner under section 721(b) of the act shall include statements regarding each such clinical investigation contained in the petition that it either was conducted in compliance with the requirements for institutional review set forth in part 56 of this chapter, or was not subject to such requirements in accordance with 56.104 or 56.105, and that it was conducted in compliance with the requirements for informed consent set forth in part 50 of this chapter.

(j)(1) If intended uses of the color additive include uses in meat, meat food product, or poultry product subject to regulation by the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) under the Poultry Products Inspection Act (PPIA) (21 U.S.C. 451 et seq. ) or the Federal Meat Inspection Act (FMIA) (21 U.S.C. 601 et seq. ), FDA shall, upon filing of the petition, forward a copy of the petition or relevant portions thereof to the Food Safety and Inspection Service, USDA, for simultaneous review under the PPIA and FMIA.

(2) FDA will ask USDA to advise whether the proposed meat and poultry uses comply with the FMIA and PPIA or, if not, whether use of the substance would be permitted in products under USDA jurisdiction under specified conditions or restrictions.

Yours very truly,

[42 FR 15639, Mar. 22, 1977, as amended at 43 FR 60021, Dec. 22, 1978; 46 FR 8952, Jan. 27, 1981; 50 FR 7491, Feb. 22, 1985; 50 FR 16668, Apr. 26, 1985; 54 FR 24890, June 12, 1989; 61 FR 14478, Apr. 2, 1996; 62 FR 40598, July 29, 1997; 65 FR 51762, Aug. 25, 2000; 66 FR 56035, Nov. 6, 2001]

Sec. 71.2 Notice of filing of petition.

(a) Except where the petition involves a new drug, the Commissioner, within 15 days after receipt, will notify the petitioner of acceptance or nonacceptance of a petition, and if not accepted the reasons therefor. If accepted, the date of the notification letter sent to petitioner becomes the date of filing for the purposes of section 721(d)(1) of the act. If the petitioner desires, he may supplement a deficient petition after being notified regarding deficiencies. If the supplementary material or explanation of the petition is deemed acceptable, petitioner shall be notified. The date of such notification becomes the date of filing. If the petitioner does not wish to supplement or explain the petition and requests in writing that it be filed as submitted, the petition shall be filed and the petitioner so notified. The date of such notification becomes the date of filing. Where the petition involves a new drug, notification to the petitioner will be made in accordance with 70.10(b)(3) of this chapter.

(b) The Commissioner will cause to be published in the Federal Register within 30 days from the date of filing of such petition a notice of the filing, the name of the petitioner, and a brief description of the proposal in general terms. A copy of the notice will be mailed to the petitioner when the original document is signed.

[42 FR 15639, Mar. 22, 1977, as amended at 64 FR 400, Jan. 5, 1999]

Sec. 71.4 Samples; additional information.

The Commissioner may request samples of the color additive, articles used as components thereof, or of the food, drug, or cosmetic in which the color additive is proposed to be used, or which comprises the color additive, and any additional information needed to clarify a submitted method or other aspect of a petition at any time while a petition is under consideration. The Commissioner shall specify in the request for a sample of the color additive, or articles used as components thereof, or of the food, drug, or cosmetic in which the color additive is proposed to be used, or which comprises the color additive, a quantity deemed adequate to permit tests of analytical methods to determine quantities of the color additive present in products for which it is intended to be used or adequate for any study or investigation reasonably required with respect to the safety of the color additive or the physical or technical effect it produces. The date used for computing the 90-day limit for the purposes of section 721(d)(1) of the act shall be moved forward 1 day for each day, after mailing date of the request, taken by the petitioner to submit the information and/or sample. If the information or sample is requested a reasonable time in advance of the 180 days, but is not submitted within such 180 days after filing of the petition, the petition will be considered withdrawn without prejudice.

Sec. 71.6 Extension of time for studying petitions; substantive amendments; withdrawal of petitions without prejudice.

(a) Extension of time for studying petitions. If the Commissioner determines that additional time is needed to study and investigate the petition, he shall by written notice to the petitioner extend the 90-day period for not more than 180 days after the filing of the petition.

(b) Substantive amendments. After a petition has been filed, the petitioner may submit additional information or data in support thereof. In such cases, if the Commissioner determines that the additional information or data amounts to a substantive amendment, the petition as amended will be given a new filing date, and the time limitation will begin to run anew. If nonclinical laboratory studies are involved, additional information and data submitted in support of filed petitions shall include, with respect to each nonclinical laboratory study contained in the petition, either a statement that the study was conducted in compliance with the requirements set forth in part 58 of this chapter, or, if the study was not conducted in compliance with such regulations, a brief statement of the reason for the noncompliance. If clinical investigations involving human subjects are involved, additional information or data submitted in support of filed petitions shall include statements regarding each such clinical investigation from which the information or data are derived, that it either was conducted in compliance with the requirements for institutional review set forth in part 56 of this chapter, or was not subject to such requirements in accordance with 56.104 or 56.105, and that it was conducted in compliance with the requirements for informed consent set forth in part 50 of this chapter.

(c) Withdrawal of petitions without prejudice. (1) In some cases the Commissioner may notify the petitioner that the petition, while technically complete, is inadequate to justify the establishment of a regulation or the regulation requested by petitioner. This may be due to the fact that the data are not sufficiently clear or complete. In such cases, the petitioner may withdraw the petition pending its clarification or the obtaining of additional data. This withdrawal will be without prejudice to a future filing. Upon refiling, the time limitation will begin to run anew from the date of refiling.

(2) At any time before the order provided for in 71.20 has been forwarded to the Federal Register for publication the petitioner may withdraw the petition without prejudice to a future filing. Upon refiling, the time limitation will begin to run anew.

[42 FR 15636, Mar. 22, 1977, as amended at 43 FR 60021, Dec. 22, 1978; 46 FR 8952, Jan. 27, 1981; 50 FR 7491, Feb. 22, 1985]

Sec. 71.15 Confidentiality of data and information in color additive petitions.

(a) The following data and information in a color additive petition are available for public disclosure, unless extraordinary circumstances are shown, after the notice of filing of the petition is published in the Federal Register or, if the petition is not promptly filed because of deficiencies in it, after the petitioner is informed that it will not be filed because of the deficiencies involved:

(1) All safety and functionality data and information submitted with or incorporated by reference in the petition.

(2) A protocol for a test or study, unless it is shown to fall within the exemption established for trade secrets and confidential commercial information in 20.61 of this chapter.

(3) Adverse reaction reports, product experience reports, consumer complaints, and other similar data and information, after deletion of:

(i) Names and any information that would identify the person using the product.

(ii) Names and any information that would identify any third party involved with the report, such as a physician or hospital or other institution.

(4) A list of all ingredients contained in a color additive, whether or not it is in descending order of predominance. A particular ingredient or group of ingredients shall be deleted from any such list prior to public disclosure if it is shown to fall within the exemption established in 20.61 of this chapter, and a notation shall be made that any such ingredient list is incomplete.

(5) An assay method or other analytical method, unless it serves no regulatory or compliance purpose and is shown to fall within the exemption established in 20.61 of this chapter.

(6) All records showing the Food and Drug Administration's testing of or action on a particular lot of a certifiable color additive.

(b) The following data and information in a color additive petition are not available for public disclosure unless they have been previously disclosed to the public as defined in 20.81 of this chapter or they relate to a product or ingredient that has been abandoned and they no longer represent a trade secret or confidential commercial or financial information as defined in 20.61 of this chapter:

(1) Manufacturing methods or processes, including quality control procedures.

(2) Production, sales, distribution, and similar data and information, except that any compilation of such data and information aggregated and prepared in a way that does not reveal data or information which is not available for public disclosure under this provision is available for public disclosure.

(3) Quantitative or semiquantitative formulas.

(c) All correspondence and written summaries of oral discussions relating to a color additive petition are available for public disclosure in accordance with the provisions of part 20 of this chapter when the color additive regulation is published in the Federal Register.

(d) For purposes of this regulation, safety and functionality data include all studies and tests of a color additive on animals and humans and all studies and tests on a color additive for identity, stability, purity, potency, performance, and usefulness.

Sec. 71.18 Petition for exemption from certification.

A manufacturer, packer, or distributor of a color additive or color additive mixture may petition for an exemption from certification pursuant to part 10 of this chapter. Any such petition shall show why such certification is not necessary for the protection of public health.

Subpart B--Administrative Action on Petitions

Sec. 71.20 Publication of regulation.

The Commissioner will forward for publication in the Federal Register, within 90 days after filing of the petition (or within 180 days if the time is extended as provided for in section 721(d)(1) of the act):

(a) A regulation listing in part 73 or 74 of this chapter the color additive on the appropriate list or lists as provided under section 721(b)(1).

(1) Such a regulation may list the color additive for use generally in or on foods, drugs, or cosmetics or for use in coloring the human body, as the case may be, or may prescribe the conditions under which the color additive may be safely used (including, but not limited to, specifications as to the particular food, drug, or cosmetic or classes of food, drugs, or cosmetics in or on which such color additive may be used, or for the material intended for coloring the human body; the maximum quantity of any straight color or diluent that may be used or permitted to remain in or on such food, drug, or cosmetic or article intended for coloring the human body; the manner in which such color additive may be added to or used in or on such food, drug, or cosmetic or for coloring the human body; and any directions or other labeling or packing requirements for such color additives deemed necessary to assure the safety of such use).

(2) Such regulations shall list the color additive only for the use or uses for which it has been found suitable and for which it may safely be employed. Alternatively, the Commissioner shall by order deny the petition, and notify the petitioner of such order and the reasons therefor.

(3) The regulation shall list any use or uses in meat, meat food product, or poultry product subject to the Federal Meat Inspection Act (FMIA) (21 U.S.C. 601 et seq. ) or the Poultry Products Inspection (PPIA) (21 U.S.C. 451 et seq. ) for which the color additive has been found suitable and for which it may safely be employed.

(b) Whenever the Commissioner finds that batch certification is not necessary for the protection of the public health he will, by order, exempt the color additive from the certification procedure. In determining whether certification of a color additive is necessary, the Commissioner will consider the composition of the additive, its manufacturing process, possible impurities, its toxic potential, control and analytical procedures necessary to assure compliance with the listing specifications, and the variability of its composition.

[42 FR 15639, Mar. 22, 1977, as amended at 65 FR 51762, Aug. 25, 2000]

Sec. 71.22 Deception as a basis for refusing to issue regulations; deceptive use of a color additive for which a regulation has issued.

The Commissioner shall refuse to issue a regulation listing a color additive, if in his judgment the data before him show that such proposed use would promote deception of the consumer or would result in misbranding or adulteration within the meaning of the act. Such a finding shall be by order published in the Federal Register subject to the filing of objections and a request for a hearing by adversely affected parties. The issuance of a regulation for a color additive authorizing its use generally in or on a food, drug, or cosmetic shall not be construed as authorization to use the color additive in a manner that may promote deception or conceal damage or inferiority. The use of a color additive to promote deception or conceal damage or inferiority shall be considered as the use of a color additive for which no regulation has issued pursuant to section 721(b) of the act, even though the regulation is effective for other uses.

Sec. 71.25 Condition for certification.

(a) When the Commissioner cannot conclude from the information before him that there is a basis for exempting a color additive from the requirement of batch certification, he will so order by appropriate listing in part 74 of this chapter. The Commissioner's order shall state in detail the specifications that shall be met by the color additive.

(b) Each order shall state a period of time after which use of a color additive subject to batch certification but not from a batch certified by procedure prescribed in this section would result in adulteration of the product in which it is used.

Sec. 71.26 Revocation of exemption from certification.

If information becomes available to the Commissioner that a color additive that has been granted exemption from certification should not, for the protection of the public health, be so exempted, such exemption will be canceled by a notice published in the Federal Register.

Sec. 71.27 Listing and exemption from certification on the Commissioner's initiative.

Where a petition for a regulation to list a color additive has not been received and the Commissioner has available facts which demonstrate that a color additive should be listed and/or that certification procedure is not necessary in order to protect the public health, he may list such color additive by appropriate regulation and listing in part 73 or 74 of this chapter.

Sec. 71.30 Procedure for filing objections to regulations.

(a) Objections and hearings relating to color additive regulations under section 721 (b) and (c) of the act shall be governed by parts 10, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, and 19 of this chapter.

(b) The fees specified in 70.19 of this chapter shall be applicable.

Sec. 71.37 Exemption of color additives for investigational use.

(a) A shipment or other delivery of a color additive or of a food, drug, or cosmetic containing such a color additive for investigational use by experts qualified to determine safety shall be exempt from the requirements of section 402(c), 501(a), or 601(e) of the act, provided that the color additive or the food, drug, or cosmetic containing the color additive bears a label which states prominently, "Caution--Contains new color additive--For investigational use only." No animals used in such investigations, or their products, such as milk or eggs, shall be used for food purposes, unless the sponsor or the investigator has submitted to the Commissioner data demonstrating that such use will be consistent with the public health, and the Commissioner, proceeding as he would in a matter involving section 409(i) of the act, has notified the sponsor or investigator that the proposed disposition for food is authorized. Any person who contests a refusal to grant such authorization shall have an opportunity for a regulatory hearing before the Food and Drug Administration pursuant to part 16 of this chapter.

(b) The person who introduced such shipment or who delivers the color additive or a food, drug, or cosmetic containing such an additive into interstate commerce shall maintain adequate records showing the name and post-office address of the expert to whom the color additive is shipped, date, quantity, and batch or code mark of each shipment and delivery for a period of 2 years after such shipment and delivery. Upon the request of a properly authorized employee of the Department, at reasonable times, he shall make such records available for inspection and copying.

Authority: 21 U.S.C. 321, 342, 348, 351, 355, 360, 360b-360f, 360h-360j, 361, 371, 379e, 381; 42 U.S.C. 216, 262.
Source: 42 FR 15639, Mar. 22, 1977, unless otherwise noted.

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