(a) The preserves or jams for which definitions and standards of identity are prescribed by this section are the viscous or semi-solid foods, each of which is made from a mixture composed of one or a permitted combination of the fruit ingredients specified in paragraph (b) of this section and one or any combination of the optional ingredients specified in paragraph (c) of this section which meets the specifications in paragraph (d) of this section, and which is labeled in accordance with paragraph (e) of this section. Such mixture, with or without added water, is concentrated with or without heat. The volatile flavoring material from such mixture may be captured during concentration, separately concentrated, and added back to any such mixture, together with any concentrated essence accompanying any optional fruit ingredient.
(b)(1) The fruit ingredients referred to in paragraph (a) of this section are the following mature, properly prepared fruits which are fresh, concentrated, frozen and/or canned:
Blackberry (other than dewberry), Black raspberry, Blueberry, Boysenberry, Cherry, Crabapple, Dewberry (other than boysenberry, loganberry, and youngberry) Elderberry, Grape, Grapefruit, Huckleberry, Loganberry, Orange, Pineapple, Raspberry, red raspberry, Rhubarb, Strawberry, Tangerine, Tomato, Yellow tomato, Youngberry
Apricot, Cranberry, Damson, damson plum, Fig, Gooseberry, Greengage, greengage plum, Guava, Nectarine, Peach, Pear, Plum (other than greengage plum and damson plum), Quince, Red currant, currant (other than black currant)
(2) The following combinations of fruit ingredients may be used:
(i) Any combination of two, three, four, or five of such fruits in which the weight of each is not less than one-fifth of the weight of the combination; except that the weight of pineapple may be not less than one-tenth of the weight of the combination.
(ii) Any combination of apple and one, two, three, or four of such fruits in which the weight of each is not less than one-fifth and the weight of apple is not more than one-half of the weight of the combination; except that the weight of pineapple may be not less than one-tenth of the weight of the combination.
In any combination of two, three, four, or five fruits, each such fruit is an optional ingredient. For the purposes of this section the word "fruit" includes the vegetables specified in this paragraph.
(c) The following safe and suitable optional ingredients may be used:
(1) Nutritive carbohydrate sweeteners.
(3) Acidifying agents.
(4) Pectin, in a quantity which reasonably compensates for deficiency, if any, of the natural pectin content of the fruit ingredient.
(5) Buffering agents.
(7) Antifoaming agents, except those derived from animal fat.
(d) For the purposes of this section:
(1) The mixture referred to in paragraph (a) of this section shall be composed of not less than: (i) In the case of a fruit ingredient consisting of a Group I fruit or a permitted combination exclusively of Group I fruits, 47 parts by weight of the fruit ingredient to each 55 parts by weight of the saccharine ingredient; and (ii) in all other cases, 45 parts by weight of the fruit ingredient to each 55 parts by weight of the saccharine ingredient. The weight of the fruit ingredient shall be determined in accordance with paragraph (d)(2) of this section, and the weight of the saccharine ingredient shall be determined in accordance with paragraph (d)(5) of this section.
(2) Any requirement with respect to the weight of any fruit, combination of fruits, or fruit ingredient means:
(i) The weight of fruit exclusive of the weight of any sugar, water, or other substance added for any processing or packing or canning, or otherwise added to such fruit.
(ii) In the case of fruit prepared by the removal, in whole or in part, of pits, seeds, skins, cores, or other parts; the weight of such fruit, exclusive of the weight of all such substances removed therefrom.
(iii) In the cases of apricots, cherries, grapes, nectarines, peaches, and all varieties of plums, whether or not pits and seeds are removed therefrom; the weight of such fruit, exclusive of the weight of such pits and seeds.
(iv) In the case of concentrated fruit, the weight of the properly prepared fresh fruit used to produce such concentrated fruit.
(3) The term concentrated fruit means a concentrate made from the properly prepared edible portion of mature fresh or frozen fruits by removal of moisture with or without the use of heat or vacuum, but not to the point of drying. Such concentrate is canned or frozen without the addition of sugar or other sweetening agents and is identified to show or permit the calculation of the weight of the properly prepared fresh fruit used to produce any given quantity of such concentrate. The volatile flavoring material or essence from such fruits may be captured during concentration and separately concentrated for subsequent addition to the concentrated fruit either directly or during manufacture of the preserve or jam, in the original proportions present in the fruit.
(4) The weight of any optional saccharine ingredient means the weight of the solids of such ingredient.
(5) The soluble-solids content of the finished jam or preserve is not less than 65 percent, as determined by the method prescribed in "Official Methods of Analysis of the Association of Official Analytical Chemists," 13th Ed. (1980), section 22.024, under "Soluble Solids by Refractometer in Fresh and Canned Fruits, Jellies, Marmalades, and Preserves--Official Final Action," which is incorporated by reference, except that no correction is made for water-insoluble solids. Copies may be obtained from the AOAC INTERNATIONAL, 481 North Frederick Ave., suite 500, Gaithersburg, MD 20877, or may be examined at the National Archives and Records Administration (NARA). For information on the availability of this material at NARA, call 202-741-6030, or go to: http://www.archives.gov/federal_register/code_of_federal_regulations/ibr_locations.html.
(e)(1) The name of each preserve or jam for which a definition and standard of identity is prescribed by this section is as follows:
(i) If the fruit ingredient is a single fruit, the name is "Preserve" or "Jam", preceded or followed by the name or synonym whereby such fruit is designated in paragraph (b) of this section.
(ii) If the fruit ingredient is a combination of two, three, four, or five fruits, the name is "Preserve" or "Jam", preceded or followed by the words "Mixed fruit" or by the names or synonyms whereby such fruits are designated in paragraph (b) of this section, in the order of predominance, if any, of the weights of such fruits in the combination.
(2) Label declaration. Each of the ingredients used in the food shall be declared on the label as required by the applicable sections of parts 101 and 130 of this chapter, except that:
(i) The name(s) of the fruit or fruits used may be declared without specifying the particular form of the fruit or fruits used.
(ii) When the optional ingredients listed in paragraphs (c) (3), (4), and (5) of this section are declared on the label, the declaration may be followed by the statement "used as needed" on all preserves or jams to which they are customarily, but not always, added to compensate for natural variations in the fruit ingredients used.
[42 FR 14445, Mar. 15, 1977, as amended at 47 FR 11831, Mar. 19, 1982; 49 FR 10101, Mar. 19, 1984; 54 FR 24895, June 12, 1989; 58 FR 2882, Jan. 6, 1993; 63 FR 14035, Mar. 24, 1998]