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U.S. Department of Health and Human Services

CFR - Code of Federal Regulations Title 21

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Help | More About 21CFR
[Code of Federal Regulations]
[Title 21, Volume 3]
[Revised as of April 1, 2013]
[CITE: 21CFR172.510]



Subpart F--Flavoring Agents and Related Substances

Sec. 172.510 Natural flavoring substances and natural substances used in conjunction with flavors.

Natural flavoring substances and natural adjuvants may be safely used in food in accordance with the following conditions.

(a) They are used in the minimum quantity required to produce their intended physical or technical effect and in accordance with all the principles of good manufacturing practice.

(b) In the appropriate forms (plant parts, fluid and solid extracts, concentrates, absolutes, oils, gums, balsams, resins, oleoresins, waxes, and distillates) they consist of one or more of the following, used alone or in combination with flavoring substances and adjuvants generally recognized as safe in food, previously sanctioned for such use, or regulated in any section of this part.

Common nameScientific nameLimitations
AloeAloe perryiBaker,A. barbadensisMill.,A. feroxMill., and hybrids of this sp. withA. africanaMill. andA. spicataBaker
Althea root and flowersAlthea officinalisL
Amyris (West Indian sandalwood)Amyris balsamiferaL
Angola weedRoccella fuciformisAchIn alcoholic beverages only
Arnica flowersArnica montanaL.,A. fulgensPursh,A. sororiaGreene, orA. cordifoliaHooker Do.
Artemisia (wormwood)ArtemisiasppFinished food thujone free1
Artichoke leavesCynara scolymusLIn alcoholic beverages only
Benzoin resinStyrax benzoinDryander,S. paralleloneurusPerkins,S. tonkinensis(Pierre) Craib ex Hartwich, or other spp. of the SectionAnthostyraxof the genusStyrax
Blackberry barkRubus,SectionEubatus
Boldus (boldo) leavesPeumus boldusMol Do.
Boronia flowersBoronia megastigmaNees
Bryonia rootBryonia albaL., orB. diociaJacq Do.
Buchu leavesBarosma betulinaBartl. et Wendl.,B. crenulata(L.) Hook. orB. serratifoliaWilld
Buckbean leavesMenyanthes trifoliataL Do.
CajeputMelaleuca leucadendronL. and otherMelaleucaspp
Calumba rootJateorhiza palmata(Lam.) Miers Do.
Camphor treeCinnamomum camphora(L.) Nees et EbermSafrole free
Cascara sagradaRhamnus purshianaDC
Cassie flowersAcacia farnesiana(L.) Willd
Castor oilRicinus communisL
Catechu, blackAcacia catechuWilld
Cedar, white (aborvitae), leaves and twigsThuja occidentalisLFinished food thujone free1
CentuaryCentaurium umbellatumGilibIn alcoholic beverages only
Cherry pitsPrunus aviumL. orP. cerasusLNot to exceed 25 p.p.m. prussic acid
Cherry-laurel leavesPrunus laurocerasusL Do.
Chestnut leavesCastanea dentata(Marsh.) Borkh
ChirataSwertia chirataBuch.-HamIn alcoholic beverages only
Cinchona, red, barkCinchona succirubraPav. or its hybridsIn beverages only; not more than 83 p.p.m. total cinchona alkaloids in finished beverage
Cinchona, yellow, barkCinchona ledgerianaMoens,C. calisayaWedd., or hybrids of these with other spp. ofCinchona. Do.
CopaibaSouth American spp. ofCopaiferaL
Cork, oakQuercus suberL., orQ. occidentalisF. GayIn alcoholic beverages only
CostmaryChrysanthemum balsamitaL Do.
Costus rootSaussurea lappaClarke
CubebPiper cubebaL. f
Currant, black, buds and leavesRibes nigrumL
Damiana leavesTurnera diffusaWilld
DavanaArtemisia pallensWall
Dill, IndianAnethum sowaRoxb. (Peucedanum graveolensBenth et Hook.,Anethum graveolensL.)
Dittany (fraxinella) rootsDictamnus albusL Do.
Dittany of CreteOriganum dictamnusL
Dragon's blood (dracorubin)Daemonoropsspp
Elder tree leavesSambucus nigraLIn alcoholic beverages only; not to exceed 25 p.p.m. prussic acid in the flavor
Elecampane rhizome and rootsInula heleniumLIn alcoholic beverages only
ElemiCanarium communeL. orC. luzonicumMiq
ErigeronErigeron canadensisL
Eucalyptus globulus leavesEucalyptus globulusLabill
Fir ("pine") needles and twigsAbies sibiricaLedeb.,A. albaMill.,A. sachalinesisMasters orA. mayrianaMiyabe et Kudo
Fir, balsam, needles and twigsAbies balsamea(L.) Mill
Galanga, greaterAlpinia galangaWilld Do.
GalbanumFerula galbanifluaBoiss. et Buhse and otherFerulaspp
Gambir (catechu, pale)Uncaria gambirRoxb
Genet flowersSpartium junceumL
Gentian rhizome and rootsGentiana luteaL
Gentian, stemlessGentiana acaulisL Do.
Germander, chamaedrysTeucrium chamaedrysL Do.
Germander, goldenTeucrium poliumL Do.
GuaiacGuaiacum officinaleL.,G. santumL.,Bulnesia sarmientiLor
GuaranaPaullinia cupanaHBK
Haw, black, barkViburnum prunifoliumL
Hemlock needles and twigsTsuga canadensis(L.) Carr. orT. heterophylla(Raf.) Sarg
Hyacinth flowersHyacinthus orientalisL
Iceland mossCetraria islandicaAch Do.
ImperatoriaPeucedanum ostruthium(L.). Koch (Imperatoria ostruthiumL.)
IvaAchillea moschataJacq Do.
Lemon-verbenaLippia citriodoraHBK Do.
Linaloe woodBursera delpechianaPoiss. and otherBurseraspp
Linden leavesTilliaspp Do.
LovageLevisticum officinaleKoch
Lungmoss (lungwort)Sticta pulmonaceaAch
Maidenhair fernAdiantum capillus-venerisL Do.
Maple, mountainAcer spicatumLam
Mimosa (black wattle) flowersAcacia decurrensWilld. var.dealbata
Mullein flowersVerbascum phlomoidesL. orV. thapsiformeSchrad Do.
MyrrhCommiphora molmolEngl.,C. abyssinica(Berg) Engl., or otherCommiphoraspp
Myrtle leavesMyrtus communisL Do.
Oak, English, woodQuercus roburL Do.
Oak, white, chipsQuercus albaL
Oak mossEvernia prunastri(L.) Ach.,E. furfuracea(L.) Mann, and other lichensFinished food thujone free1
OlibanumBoswellia carteriBirdw. and otherBoswelliaspp
Opopanax (bisabolmyrrh)Opopanax chironiumKoch (true opopanax) ofCommiphora erythraeaEngl. var.Llabrescens
Orris rootIris germanicaL. (including its varietyflorentinaDykes) andI. pallidaLam
PansyViola tricolorLIn alcoholic beverages only
Passion flowerPassiflora incarnataL
PatchoulyPogostemon cablinBenth. andP. heyneanusBenth
Peach leavesPrunus persica(L.) BatschIn alcoholic beverages only; not to exceed 25 p.p.m. prussic acid in the flavor
Pennyroyal, AmericanHedeoma pulegioides(L.) Pers
Pennyroyal, EuropeanMentha pulegiumL
Pine, dwarf, needles and twigsPinus mugoTurra var.pumilio(Haenke) Zenari
Pine, Scotch, needles and twigsPinus sylvestrisL
Pine, white, barkPinus strobusLIn alcoholic beverages only
Pine, white oilPinus palustrisMill., and otherPinusspp
Poplar budsPopulus balsamiferaL. (P. tacamahaccaMill.),P. candicansAit., orP. nigraL Do.
QuassiaPicrasma excelsa(Sw.) Planch, orQuassia amaraL
Quebracho barkAspidosperma quebracho-blancoSchlecht, or (Quebrachia lorentzii(Griseb))Schinopsis lorentzii(Griseb.) Engl.
Quillaia (soapbark)Quillaja saponariaMol
Red saunders (red sandalwood)Pterocarpus san alinusLIn alcoholic beverages only
Rhatany rootKrameria triandraRuiz et Pav. orK. argenteaMart
Rhubarb, garden rootRheum rhaponticumL Do.
Rhubarb rootRheum officinaleBaill.,R. palmatumL., or other spp. (exceptingR. rhaponticumL.) or hybrids ofRheumgrown in China
RoselleHibiscus sabdariffaL Do.
Rosin (colophony)Pinus palustrisMill., and otherPinusspp Do.
St. Johnswort leaves, flowers, and caulisHypericum perforatumLHypericin-free alcohol distillate form only; in alcoholic beverages only
Sandalwood, white (yellow, or East Indian)Santalum albumL
SandaracTetraclinis articulata(Vahl.), MastIn alcoholic beverages only
SarsaparillaSmilax aristolochiaefoliaMill., (Mexican sarsaparilla),S. regeliiKillip et Morton (Honduras sarsaparilla),S. febrifugaKunth (Ecuadorean sarsaparilla), or undeterminedSmilaxspp. (Ecuadorean or Central American sarsaparilla)
Sassafras leavesSassafras albidum(Nutt.) NeesSafrole free
Senna, AlexandriaCassia acutifoliaDelile
Serpentaria (Virginia snakeroot)Aristolochia serpentariaLIn alcoholic beverages only
Simaruba barkSimaruba amaraAubl Do.
Snakeroot, Canadian (wild ginger)Asarum canadenseL
Spruce needles and twigsPicea glauca(Moench) Voss orP. mariana(Mill.) BSP
Storax (styrax)Liquidambar orientalisMill. orL. styracifluaL
Tagetes (marigold)Tagetes patulaL.,T. erectaL., orT. minutaL. (T. glanduliferaSchrank)As oil only
TansyTanacetum vulgareLIn alcoholic beverages only; finished alcoholic beverage thujone free1
Thistle, blessed (holy thistle)Onicus benedictusLIn alcoholic beverages only
Thymus capitatus(Spanish "origanum")Thymus capitatusHoffmg. et Link
ToluMyroxylon balsamum(L.) Harms
TurpentinePinus palustrisMill. and otherPinusspp. which yield terpene oils exclusively
Valerian rhizome and rootsValeriana officinalisL
VeronicaVeronica officinalisL Do.
Vervain, EuropeanVerbena officinalisL Do.
VetiverVetiveria zizanioidesStapf Do.
Violet, SwissViola calcarataL
Walnut husks (hulls), leaves, and green nutsJuglans nigraL. orJ. regiaL
Woodruff, sweetAsperula odorataLIn alcoholic beverages only
YarrowAchillea millefoliumLIn beverages only; finished beverage thujone free1
Yerba santaEriodictyon californicum(Hook, et Arn.) Torr
Yucca, Joshua-treeYucca brevifoliaEngelm
Yucca, MohaveYucca schidigeraRoezl ex Ortgies (Y. mohavensisSarg.)

1As determined by using the method (or, in other than alcoholic beverages, a suitable adaptation thereof) in section 9.129 of the "Official Methods of Analysis of the Association of Official Analytical Chemists," 13th Ed. (1980), which is incorporated by reference. Copies may be obtained from the AOAC INTERNATIONAL, 481 North Frederick Ave., suite 500, Gaithersburg, MD 20877, or may be examined at the National Archives and Records Administration (NARA). For information on the availability of this material at NARA, call 202-741-6030, or go to:http://www.archives.gov/federal_register/code_of_federal_regulations/ibr_locations.html.

[42 FR 14491, Mar. 15, 1977, as amended at 43 FR 14644, Apr. 7, 1978; 49 FR 10104, Mar. 19, 1984; 54 FR 24897, June 12, 1989; 69 FR 24511, May 4, 2004; 72 FR 10357, Mar. 8, 2007]