(a) Citric acid (C6H8O7, CAS Reg. No. 77-92-9) is the compound 2-hydroxy-1,2,3-propanetricarboxylic acid. It is a naturally occurring constituent of plant and animal tissues. It occurs as colorless crystals or a white powder and may be anhydrous or contain one mole of water per mole of citric acid. Citric acid may be produced by recovery from sources such as lemon or pineapple juice; by mycological fermentation using Candida spp. , described in 173.160 and 173.165 of this chapter; and by the solvent extraction process described in 173.280 of this chapter for the recovery of citric acid from Aspergillus niger fermentation liquor.
(b) The ingredient meets the specifications of the Food Chemicals Codex, 3d ed. (1981), pp. 86-87, and its third supplement (March 1992), pp. 107-108, which are incorporated by reference in accordance with 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR part 51. Copies are available from the National Academy Press, 2101 Constitution Ave. NW., Washington, DC 20418, and the Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition (HFS-200), 5001 Campus Dr., College Park, MD 20740, or may be examined at the National Archives and Records Administration (NARA). For information on the availability of this material at NARA, call 202-741-6030, or go to: http://www.archives.gov/federal_register/code_of_federal_regulations/ibr_locations.html.
(c) In accordance with 184.1(b)(1), the ingredient is used in food with no limitations other than current good manufacturing practice.
(d) Prior sanctions for this ingredient different from the uses established in this section do not exist or have been waived.