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U.S. Department of Health and Human Services

CFR - Code of Federal Regulations Title 21

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Help | More About 21CFR
[Code of Federal Regulations]
[Title 21, Volume 3]
[Revised as of April 1, 2014]
[CITE: 21CFR184.1555]



TITLE 21--FOOD AND DRUGS
CHAPTER I--FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION
DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES
SUBCHAPTER B--FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED)

PART 184 -- DIRECT FOOD SUBSTANCES AFFIRMED AS GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE

Subpart B--Listing of Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS

Sec. 184.1555 Rapeseed oil.

(a) Fully hydrogenated rapeseed oil. (1) Fully hydrogenated rapeseed oil is a mixture of triglycerides in which the fatty acid composition is a mixture of saturated fatty acids. The fatty acids are present in the same porportions which result from the full hydrogenation of fatty acids occurring in natural rapeseed oil. The rapeseed oil is obtained from the napus and campestris varieties of Brassica of the family Cruciferae. It is prepared by fully hydrogenating refined and bleached rapeseed oil at 310-375 deg. F, using a catalyst such as nickel, until the iodine number is 4 or less.

(2) The ingredient meets the following specifications: Acid value not more than 6, arsenic not more than 3 parts per million, free glycerin not more than 7 percent, heavy metals (as Pb) not more than 10 parts per million, iodine number not more than 4, residue on ignition not more than 0.5 percent.

(3) The ingredient is used as a stabilizer and thickener as defined in 170.3(o)(28) of this chapter in peanut butter. The use level of the ingredient is limited by good manufacturing practice (GMP) to the minimum amount required to produce the intended effect. Current good manufacturing practices result in a maximum level of 2 percent in peanut butter.

(b) Superglycerinated fully hydrogenated rapeseed oil. (1) Superglycerinated fully hydrogenated rapeseed oil is a mixture of mono- and diglycerides with triglycerides as a minor component. The fatty acid composition is a mixture of saturated fatty acids present in the same proportions as those resulting from the full hydrogenation of fatty acids in natural rapeseed oil. It is made by adding excess glycerol to the fully hydrogenated rapeseed oil and heating, in the presence of a sodium hydroxide catalyst, to 330 deg. F under partial vacuum and steam sparging agitation.

(2) The ingredient meets the specifications of the "Food Chemicals Codex," 3d Ed. (1981), p. 201, relating to mono- and diglycerides, which is incorporated by reference. Copies may be obtained from the National Academy Press, 2101 Constitution Ave. NW., Washington, DC 20418, or may be examined at the National Archives and Records Administration (NARA). For information on the availability of this material at NARA, call 202-741-6030, or go to: http://www.archives.gov/federal_register/code_of_federal_regulations/ibr_locations.html. An additional specification requires the iodine number to be 4 or less.

(3) The ingredient is used as an emulsifier as defined in 170.3(o)(8) of this chapter in shortenings for cake mixes. The use level of the ingredient is limited by good manufacturing practice (GMP) to the minimum amount required to produce the intended effect. Current good manufacturing practices result in a maximum level, as served, of 4 percent of the shortening or 0.5 percent of the total weight of the cake mix.

(c) Low erucic acid rapeseed oil. (1) Low erucic acid rapeseed oil, also known as canola oil, is the fully refined, bleached, and deodorized edible oil obtained from certain varieties of Brassica Napus or B. Campestris of the family Cruciferae. The plant varieties are those producing oil-bearing seeds with a low erucic acid content. Chemically, low erucic acid rapeseed oil is a mixture of triglycerides, composed of both saturated and unsaturated fatty acids, with an erucic acid content of no more than 2 percent of the component fatty acids.

(2) Low erucic acid rapeseed oil as defined in paragraph (c)(1) of this section may be partially hydrogenated to reduce the proportion of unsaturated fatty acids. When the partially hydrogenated low erucic acid rapeseed oil is used, it shall be referred to as partially hydrogenated low erucic acid rapeseed oil.

(3) In addition to limiting the content of erucic acid to a level not exceeding 2 percent of the component fatty acids, low erucic acid rapeseed oil and partially hydrogenated low erucic acid rapeseed oil must be of a purity suitable for their intended use.

(4) Low erucic acid rapeseed oil and partially hydrogenated low erucic acid rapeseed oil are used as edible fats and oils in food, except in infant formula, at levels not to exceed current good manufacturing practice.

[42 FR 48336, Sept. 23, 1977, as amended at 49 FR 5613, Feb. 14, 1984; 50 FR 3755, Jan. 28, 1985; 53 FR 52682, Dec. 29, 1988; 73 FR 8608, Feb. 14, 2008]

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