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U.S. Department of Health and Human Services

Database of Select Committee on GRAS Substances (SCOGS) Reviews

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Zinc gluconate

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Report No.:  78
Type of Conclusion:  1
ID Code:  4468-02-4
Year:  1978
CFR Section:  182.8988
SCOGS Opinion:  Gluconates are useful as nutritional supplements since their high solubility allows relatively rapid absorption of the cations. Evidence suggests that any possible toxicity is a function of the cation rather than of the gluconate portion of these substances. Thus, the acute toxic responses to the various gluconate salts are comparable with other salts of the same metals and long-term toxicities seem related to the tissue deposition of these metals. These observations could have been anticipated because gluconic acid is a normal metabolic product of glucose. The amount of gluconic acid produced endogenously is many times greater than the largest amounts likely to be consumed from food. Because the toxicological activities of these gluconates appear to be a function of their cationic components, safe and acceptable levels in foods are limited only by the nature of the specific cations. There is no evidence in the available information on sodium gluconate, potassium gluconate, magnesium gluconate, and zinc gluconate that demonstrates, or suggests reasonable grounds to suspect, a hazard to the public when they are used at levels that are now current or that might reasonably be expected in the future.