The citrate ion is widely distributed in plants and animals and is a naturally occurring component of the diet. It is a common metabolite in oxidative metabolism and an important component of bone. Exogenous citrate administered to infants and adults as a component of commonly consumed diets is considered completely metabolizable. The addition of citric acid to foods is considered equivalent to adding citrate salts except in foods of very high acidity. The amount of citrate added to foods by foods processors is about 500mg per person per day. This amount occurs naturally in 2 ounces of orange juice and does not constitute a significant addition to the total body load. Although data on acute and chronic effects of orally administered sodium citrate, calcium citrate and potassium citrate are limited, no biological effects of the citrate-containing substances evaluated in this report cause concern about the safety of these GRAS substances used in reasonable amounts and in accordance with prescribed tolerances and limitations.
In light of the foregoing, the Select Committee concludes that: There is no evidence in the available information on citric acid, sodium citrate, potassium citrate, calcium citrate, ammonium citrate, isopropyl citrate, stearyl citrate, and triethyl citrate that demonstrates, or suggests reasonable grounds to suspect, a hazard to the public when used at levels that are now current or that might reasonably be expected in the future.