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U.S. Department of Health and Human Services

SCOGS (Select Committee on GRAS Substances)

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This database allows access to opinions and conclusions from 115 SCOGS reports* published between 1972-1980 on the safety of over 370 Generally Recognized As Safe (GRAS) food substances. The GRAS ingredient reviews were conducted by the Select Committee in response to a 1969 White House directive by President Richard M. Nixon (see History of GRAS and SCOGS).

The SCOGS database allows users to search for the SCOGS opinion and conclusion, and includes the United States Code of Federal Regulations (21 CFR) citation for those GRAS food substances that have been codified in the CFR. Many of the SCOGS reports reviewed more than one GRAS substance and each substance was evaluated and assigned its own individual type of conclusion on safety; Type 1, 2, 3, 4, or 5, as shown in the table below.**

The SCOGS Conclusions were made by scientific experts outside of FDA. The complete background of the Select Committee is described in the History of GRAS and SCOGS.


Search and display hints:

  • Select the GRAS substance below to view the record details, including the SCOGS opinion.
  • Select the CFR reference below to view the 21 CFR regulations.
  • Select the NTIS Accession Number below to order the full report from NTIS.
  • To sort by a specific field, click on the column header for that field.
  • To browse the records, use the Show All, First/Previous/Next/Last, and Jump To options at the bottom of the data table.
  • To search for a specific substance/term, enter the term in the Search box and select Show Items to display only those records that contain the selected term.
Download SCOGS (Select Committee on GRAS Substances) data in Microsoft Excel web format Download data from this searchable database in Excel format. If you need help accessing information in different file formats, see Instructions for Downloading Viewers and Players.
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Records Found: 373 Show All Page 1 of 8
GRAS Substance
(sorted A-Z)
SCOGS
Report
Number
CAS Reg. No.
or other
ID Code
Year of
Report
SCOGS
Type of
Conclusion**
21 CFR
Regulation
NTIS
Accession
Number*
Acetic acid 82 64-19-7 1977 1 184.1005 PB274670
Acetylated Distarch Adipate 115 63798-35-6 1979 2 172.892 PB80128804
Acetylated Distarch Glycerol 115 53123-84-5 1979 4 PB80128804
Acetylated Distarch Phosphate 115 68130-14-3 1979 2 172.892 PB80128804
Acetylated Distarch Oxypropanol 115 977120-10-7 1979 3 172.892 PB80128804
Acid Modified Starch 115 65996-63-6 1979 1 172.892
182.90
PB80128804
Aconitic Acid 41 499-12-7 1974 1 184.1007 PB254534
Adipic acid 80 124-04-9 1976 1 184.1009 PB266279
Agar-agar 23 9002-18-0 1973 2 184.1115 PB265502
Aluminum ammonium sulfate 43 7784-26-1 1975 1 182.1127 PB262655
Aluminum calcium silicate 61 1344-01-0 1979 1 182.2122 PB301402
Aluminum hydroxide 43 21645-51-2 1975 1 184.1139 PB262655
Aluminum oleate (packaging) 43 688-37-9 1975 1 PB262655
Aluminum palmitate (packaging) 43 555-35-1 1975 1 PB262655
Aluminum potassium sulfate 43 7784-24-9 1975 1 182.1129 PB262655
Aluminum sodium sulfate 43 7784-28-3 1975 1 182.1131 PB262655
Aluminum sulfate 43 10043-01-3 1975 1 182.1125 PB262655
Ammonium alginate 24 9005-34-9 1973 2 184.1133 PB265503
Ammonium bicarbonate 34 1066-33-7 1974 1 PB254532
Ammonium carbonate 34 8000-73-5 1974 1 184.1137 PB254532
Ammonium chloride 34 12125-02-9 1974 1 184.1138 PB254532
Ammonium citrate 84 7632-50-0 1977 1 184.1140 PB280954
Ammonium hydroxide 34 1336-21-6 1974 1 184.1139 PB254532
Ammonium phosphate dibasic (Report 32) 32 7783-28-0 1975 1 184.1141b PB262651
Ammonium phosphate dibasic (Report 34) 34 7783-28-0 1974 1 184.1141b PB254532
Ammonium phosphate monobasic 34 7722-76-1 1974 1 184.1141a PB254532
Ammonium sulfate 34 7783-20-2 1974 1 184.1143 PB254532
Arrowroot Starch 115 977000-09-1 1979 1 PB80128804
L-Ascorbic acid 59 50-81-7 1979 1 182.3013
182.8013
PB80128796
Ascorbyl palmitate (palmitoyl L-ascorbic) 59 137-66-6 1979 1 182.3149 PB80128796
Beeswax (yellow or white) 46a 8006-40-4 1975 1 184.1973 PB262656
Bentonite 90 1302-78-9 1977 1 184.1155 PB276416
Benzoic Acid 7 65-85-0 1973 1 184.1021 PB223837
Biotin 92 58-85-5 1978 1 182.8159 PB281421
Bleached Starch 115 977075-42-5 1979 1 172.892 PB80128804
Brown algae 38 977161-38-8 1973 1 184.1120 PB265505
Butylated Hydroxyanisole (BHA) 55 25013-16-5 1978 3 182.3169 PB285496
Butylated Hydroxytoluene (BHT) 2 128-37-0 1973 3 172.115 PB259917
Caffeine 89 58-08-2 1978 3,4 182.1180 PB283441
Calcium acetate 45 62-54-4 1975 1 184.1185 PB254539
Calcium alginate 24 9005-35-0 1973 2 184.1187 PB265503
Calcium carbonate 26 471-34-1 1975 1 184.1191 PB254535
Calcium caseinate 96 9005-43-0 1979 1 PB301401
Calcium chloride 45 10035-04-8 1975 1 184.1193 PB254539
Calcium citrate 84 813-94-5 1977 1 184.1195 PB280954
Calcium gluconate 45 299-28-5 1975 1 184.1199 PB254539
Calcium glycerophosphate (packaging) 74 27214-00-2 1976 1 PB265506
Calcium hexametaphosphate 32 10102-76-8 1975 1 PB262651
Calcium hydroxide 72 1305-62-0 1975 1 184.1205 PB254540
Calcium hypophosphite 73 7789-79-9 1977 1 PB274476

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Definitions of labels

  • GRAS Substances: A food substance that is not subject to premarket review and approval by FDA because it is generally recognized, by qualified experts, to be safe under the intended conditions of use.
  • SCOGS Report Number: Number of the report that contains details of the safety studies that formed the basis of the opinion made by the committee.
  • CAS Reg. No. or other ID Code: Chemical Abstract Services (CAS) Registry Number for the substance or a numerical code assigned by CFSAN to those substances that do not have a CAS Registry Number (977nnn-nn-n series).
  • Year of Report: The year that the SCOGS report was issued.
  • SCOGS Type of Conclusion: Opinion and Conclusion by the Select Committee on GRAS Substance Review about the safety of a GRAS substance. See SCOGS Conclusions.
  • 21 CFR Regulation: Citation in Title 21 of the U.S. Code of Federal Regulations if the substance is subject to a regulation.
  • *NTIS Accession Number: Order number of the full report containing details of the safety studies that formed the basis of the opinions and conclusions that is available from the National Technical Information Service (NTIS), 5285 Port Royal Road, Springfield, VA 22161 (703) 605-6000; registration and sign in required to download full reports.

**SCOGS Type of Conclusion Definition
1There is no evidence in the available information on [substance] that demonstrates, or suggests reasonable grounds to suspect, a hazard to the public when they are used at levels that are now current or might reasonably be expected in the future.
2 There is no evidence in the available information on [substance] that demonstrates a hazard to the public when it is used at levels that are now current and in the manner now practiced. However, it is not possible to determine, without additional data, whether a significant increase in consumption would constitute a dietary hazard.
3 While no evidence in the available information on [substance] demonstrates a hazard to the public when it is used at levels that are now current and in the manner now practiced, uncertainties exist requiring that additional studies be conducted.
4The evidence on [substance] is insufficient to determine that the adverse effects reported are not deleterious to the public health should it be used at former levels and in the manner formerly practiced.
5In view of the almost complete lack of biological studies, the Select Committee has insufficient data upon which to evaluate the safety of [substance] as a [intended use].
GRAS Substance
(sorted A-Z)
SCOGS
Report
Number
CAS Reg. No.
or other
ID Code
Year of
Report
SCOGS
Type of
Conclusion**
21 CFR
Regulation
NTIS
Accession
Number*
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