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U.S. Department of Health and Human Services

SCOGS (Select Committee on GRAS Substances)

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This database allows access to opinions and conclusions from 115 SCOGS reports* published between 1972-1980 on the safety of over 370 Generally Recognized As Safe (GRAS) food substances. The GRAS ingredient reviews were conducted by the Select Committee in response to a 1969 White House directive by President Richard M. Nixon (see History of GRAS and SCOGS).

The SCOGS database allows users to search for the SCOGS opinion and conclusion, and includes the United States Code of Federal Regulations (21 CFR) citation for those GRAS food substances that have been codified in the CFR. Many of the SCOGS reports reviewed more than one GRAS substance and each substance was evaluated and assigned its own individual type of conclusion on safety; Type 1, 2, 3, 4, or 5, as shown in the table below.**

The SCOGS Conclusions were made by scientific experts outside of FDA. The complete background of the Select Committee is described in the History of GRAS and SCOGS.


Search and display hints:

  • Select the GRAS substance below to view the record details, including the SCOGS opinion.
  • Select the CFR reference below to view the 21 CFR regulations.
  • Select the NTIS Accession Number below to order the full report from NTIS.
  • To sort by a specific field, click on the column header for that field.
  • To browse the records, use the Show All, First/Previous/Next/Last, and Jump To options at the bottom of the data table.
  • To search for a specific substance/term, enter the term in the Search box and select Show Items to display only those records that contain the selected term.
Download SCOGS (Select Committee on GRAS Substances) data in Microsoft Excel web format Download data from this searchable database in Excel format. If you need help accessing information in different file formats, see Instructions for Downloading Viewers and Players.
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Records Found: 378 Show 50 records at a time
GRAS Substance
(sorted A-Z)
SCOGS
Report
Number
CAS Reg. No.
or other
ID Code
Year of
Report
SCOGS
Type of
Conclusion**
21 CFR
Regulation
NTIS
Accession
Number*
Acetic acid 82 64-19-7 1977 1 184.1005 PB274670
Acetylated Distarch Adipate 115 63798-35-6 1979 2 172.892 PB80128804
Acetylated Distarch Glycerol 115 53123-84-5 1979 4 PB80128804
Acetylated Distarch Phosphate 115 68130-14-3 1979 2 172.892 PB80128804
Acetylated Distarch Oxypropanol 115 977120-10-7 1979 3 172.892 PB80128804
Acid Modified Starch 115 65996-63-6 1979 1 172.892
182.90
PB80128804
Aconitic Acid 41 499-12-7 1974 1 184.1007 PB254534
Adipic acid 80 124-04-9 1976 1 184.1009 PB266279
Agar-agar 23 9002-18-0 1973 2 184.1115 PB265502
Aluminum ammonium sulfate 43 7784-26-1 1975 1 182.1127 PB262655
Aluminum calcium silicate 61 1344-01-0 1979 1 182.2122 PB301402
Aluminum hydroxide 43 21645-51-2 1975 1 182.90 PB262655
Aluminum oleate (packaging) 43 688-37-9 1975 1 PB262655
Aluminum palmitate (packaging) 43 555-35-1 1975 1 PB262655
Aluminum potassium sulfate 43 7784-24-9 1975 1 182.1129 PB262655
Aluminum sodium sulfate 43 7784-28-3 1975 1 182.1131 PB262655
Aluminum sulfate 43 10043-01-3 1975 1 182.1125 PB262655
Ammonium alginate 24 9005-34-9 1973 2 184.1133 PB265503
Ammonium bicarbonate 34 1066-33-7 1974 1 184.1135 PB254532
Ammonium carbonate 34 8000-73-5 1974 1 184.1137 PB254532
Ammonium chloride 34 12125-02-9 1974 1 184.1138 PB254532
Ammonium citrate 84 7632-50-0 1977 1 184.1140 PB280954
Ammonium hydroxide 34 1336-21-6 1974 1 184.1139 PB254532
Ammonium phosphate dibasic (Report 32) 32 7783-28-0 1975 1 184.1141b PB262651
Ammonium phosphate dibasic (Report 34) 34 7783-28-0 1974 1 184.1141b PB254532
Ammonium phosphate monobasic (Report 32) 32 7722-76-1 1975 1 184.1141a PB262651
Ammonium phosphate monobasic (Report 34) 34 7722-76-1 1974 1 184.1141a PB254532
Ammonium sulfate 34 7783-20-2 1974 1 184.1143 PB254532
Arrowroot Starch 115 977000-09-1 1979 1 PB80128804
L-Ascorbic acid 59 50-81-7 1979 1 182.3013
182.8013
PB80128796
Ascorbyl palmitate (palmitoyl L-ascorbic) 59 137-66-6 1979 1 182.3149 PB80128796
Beeswax (yellow or white) 46a 8006-40-4 1975 1 184.1973 PB262656
Bentonite 90 1302-78-9 1977 1 184.1155 PB276416
Benzoic Acid 7 65-85-0 1973 1 184.1021 PB223837
Biotin 92 58-85-5 1978 1 182.8159 PB281421
Bleached Starch 115 977075-42-5 1979 1 172.892 PB80128804
Brown algae 38 977146-32-9 1973 1 184.1120 PB265505
Butylated Hydroxyanisole (BHA) 55 25013-16-5 1978 3 182.3169 PB285496
Butylated Hydroxytoluene (BHT) 2 128-37-0 1973 3 172.115 PB259917
Caffeine 89 58-08-2 1978 3,4 182.1180 PB283441
Calcium acetate 45 62-54-4 1975 1 184.1185 PB254539
Calcium alginate 24 9005-35-0 1973 2 184.1187 PB265503
Calcium carbonate 26 471-34-1 1975 1 184.1191 PB254535
Calcium caseinate 96 9005-43-0 1979 1 PB301401
Calcium chloride 45 10035-04-8 1975 1 184.1193 PB254539
Calcium citrate 84 813-94-5 1977 1 184.1195 PB280954
Calcium gluconate 45 299-28-5 1975 1 184.1199 PB254539
Calcium glycerophosphate 74 27214-00-2 1976 1 184.1201 PB265506
Calcium glycerophosphate (packaging) 74 27214-00-2 1976 1 181.29 PB265506
Calcium hexametaphosphate 32 10102-76-8 1975 1 PB262651
Calcium hydroxide 72 1305-62-0 1975 1 184.1205 PB254540
Calcium hypophosphite 73 7789-79-9 1977 1 PB274476
Calcium iodate 39 7789-80-2 1975 1 184.1206 PB254533
Calcium L-ascorbate 59 5743-28-2 1979 1 182.3189 PB80128796
Calcium Lactate 116 814-80-2 1978 1 184.1207 PB283713
L(+)-calcium lactate 116 28305-25-1 1978 1 184.1207 PB283713
Calcium oxide 72 1305-78-8 1975 1 184.1210 PB254540
D- or DL- Calcium pantothenate 93 137-08-6 1978 1 184.1212 PB288672
Calcium phosphate dibasic 32 7757-93-9 1975 1 PB262651
Calcium phosphate monobasic 32 10031-30-8 1975 1 PB262651
Calcium phosphate tribasic 32 12167-74-7 1975 1 PB262651
Calcium phytate 45 3615-82-5 1975 1 582.6219 PB254539
Calcium propionate 79 4075-81-4 1979 1 184.1221 PB80104599
Calcium pyrophosphate 32 7790-76-3 1975 1 182.8223 PB262651
Calcium silicate 61 1344-95-2 1979 1 182.2227 PB301402
Calcium sorbate 57 7492-55-9 1975 1 182.3225 PB262663
Calcium stearate 54 1592-23-0 1975 1 181.29
184.1229
PB262661
Caprylic Acid 29 124-07-2 1974 1 184.1025 PB254530
Caramel 20 8028-89-5 1973 1 182.1235 PB266880
Carbon dioxide 117 124-38-9 1979 1 184.1240 PB80104615
Carbonyl Iron 35 7439-89-6 1980 2 184.1375 PB80178676
Carbonyl Iron (packaging) 35 7439-89-6 1980 2 184.1375 PB80178676
Carboxymethyl cellulose (packaging) 25 9000-11-7 1973 1 PB274667
Carnauba wax 47 8015-86-9 1975 5 184.1978 PB262658
Carob Bean Gum 3 9000-40-2 1972 2 184.1343 PB221952
Carotene (beta-carotene) 111 7235-40-7 1979 1 184.1245 PB80119837
Carrageenan 6 9000-07-1 1973 3 172.620 PB266877
Casein 96 9000-71-9 1979 1 PB301401
Enzymatically hydrolyzed casein 37b 9000-71-9 1980 1 PB80178643
Cellulose 25 9004-34-6 1973 1 PB274667
Cellulose acetate(packaging) 25 9004-35-7 1973 1 182.90 PB274667
Cellulose, microcrystalline 25 977005-28-9 1973 1 PB274667
Cholic acid 44 81-25-4 1975 1 PB254524
Choline Bitartrate 42 87-67-2 1975 1 182.8250 PB262654
Choline Chloride 42 67-48-1 1975 1 182.8252 PB262654
Citric acid 84 77-92-9 1977 1 184.1033 PB280954
Clay (kaolin) (packaging) 90 1332-58-7 1977 1 186.1256 PB276416
Clove Bud Extract 19 84961-50-2 1973 1 184.1257 PB238792
Clove Bud Oil 19 8000-34-8 1973 1 184.1257 PB238792
Clove Bud Oleoresin 19 977017-85-8 1973 1 184.1257 PB238792
Clove Leaf Oil 19 8000-34-8 1973 1 184.1257 PB238792
Clove Stem Oil 19 8000-34-8 1973 1 184.1257 PB238792
Coconut oil (packaging) 65 8001-31-8 1975 1 PB274475
Copper (cupric) gluconate 98 7440-50-8 1979 1 184.1260 PB301400
Copper (cupric) sulfate 98 7758-98-7 1979 1 184.1261 PB301400
Corn silk 87 977000-79-5 1977 5 184.1262 PB278158
Corn Sugar (Dextrose) 50 50-99-7 1976 2 184.1857 PB262659
Corn Syrup 50 8029-43-4 1976 2 184.1865 PB262659
Cornstarch 115 977050-51-3 1979 1 182.70
182.90
PB80128804
Cuprous iodide 98 7681-65-4 1979 1 184.1265 PB301400
Desoxycholic acid 44 83-44-3 1975 1 PB254524
Dextran 83 9004-54-0 1975 2 186.1275 PB254537
Dextrins 75 9004-53-9 1975 1 184.1277 PB254538
Corn dextrins (packaging) 75 9004-53-9 1975 1 PB254538
Diacetyl 94 431-03-8 1980 1 184.1278 PB80178668
Diatomaceous earth (filter aid) 61 61790-53-2 1979 1 PB301402
Dietary Iron PB-218 836 7439-89-6 1972 There is no conclusion type. PB80178676
Dilauryl thiodipropionate 79 123-28-4 1979 2 182.3280 PB80104599
Distarch Glycerol 115 58944-89-1 1979 4 PB80128804
Distarch Oxypropanol 115 977043-57-4 1979 3 PB80128804
Distarch Phosphate 115 55963-33-2 1979 2 172.892 PB80128804
Electrolytic Iron 35 7439-89-6 1980 2 184.1375 PB80178676
Electrolytic Iron (packaging) 35 7439-89-6 1980 2 PB80178676
Erythorbic acid (D-isoascorbic acid) 59 89-65-6 1979 1 182.3041 PB80128796
Ethyl acrylate, monomeric (packaging) 88 140-88-5 1977 1 PB276415
Ethyl acrylate, polymeric (packaging) 88 9003-32-1 1977 1 PB276415
Ethyl cellulose (packaging) 25 9004-57-3 1973 1 182.90 PB274667
Ethyl formate 71 109-94-4 1976 1 184.1295 PB266282
Ferric ammonium citrate 35 1185-57-5 1980 2 184.1296 PB80178676
Ferric chloride (packaging) 35 7705-08-0 1980 1 184.1297 PB80178676
Ferric citrate 35 2338-05-8 1980 2 184.1298 PB80178676
Ferric oxide 35 1309-37-1 1980 5 PB80178676
Ferric oxide (packaging) 35 1309-37-1 1980 1 186.1300 PB80178676
Ferric phosphate 35 10045-86-0 1980 2 184.1301 PB80178676
Ferric pyrophosphate 35 10058-44-3 1980 2 184.1304 PB80178676
Ferric sodium pyrophosphate 35 10045-87-1 1980 5 PB80178676
Ferric sulfate (packaging) 35 10028-22-5 1980 1 PB80178676
Ferrous ascorbate 35 24808-52-4 1980 2 184.1307a PB80178676
Ferrous carbonate 35 563-71-3 1980 2 184.1307b PB80178676
Ferrous citrate 35 23383-11-1 1980 2 184.1307c PB80178676
Ferrous fumarate 35 141-01-5 1980 2 184.1307d PB80178676
Ferrous gluconate 35 6047-12-7 1980 2 184.1308 PB80178676
Ferrous lactate 35 5905-52-2 1980 2 184.1311 PB80178676
Ferrous sulfate 35 7720-78-7 1980 2 184.1315 PB80178676
Ferrous sulfate (packaging) 35 7720-78-7 1980 1 PB80178676
Fish oil, hydrogenated (packaging) 66 8016-13-5 1975 1 186.1551 PB262667
Formic acid (packaging) 71 64-18-6 1976 1 186.1316 PB266282
Garlic and Oil of Garlic 17 8000-78-0 1973 1 184.1317 PB223838
Gelatin 58 9000-70-8 1975 1 PB254527
L-Glutamic acid 37a 56-86-0 1980 2 182.1045 PB80178635
L-Glutamic acid hydrochloride 37a 138-15-8 1980 2 182.1047 PB80178635
Glycerin and Glycerides 30 56-81-5 1975 1 PB254536
Glycocholic acid 44 475-31-0 1975 1 PB254524
Glycyrrhiza 28 68916-91-6 1974 2 184.1408 PB254529
Ammoniated Glycyrrhizin 28 53956-04-0 1974 2 184.1408 PB254529
Guar Gum 13 9000-30-0 1973 2 184.1339 PB223836
Gum Arabic 1 9000-01-5 1973 2 184.1330 PB234904
Gum Ghatti 12 9000-28-6 1973 2 184.1333 PB223841
Gum guaiac 64 9000-29-7 1975 1 PB274474
Gum Tragacanth 4 9000-65-1 1972 2 184.1351 PB223835
Helium gas 112 7440-59-7 1979 1 184.1355 PB80112022
High Amylose Cornstarch 115 977050-51-3 1979 1 PB80128804
Hydrochloric acid 99 7647-01-0 1979 1 182.1057 PB301399
Hydrogen peroxide 113 7722-84-1 1979 2 184.1366 PB80104607
Hydrogenated soybean oil 70 8016-70-4 1976 1 PB266280
Hydrogenated tallow (packaging) 54 61789-97-7 1975 1 182.70 PB262661
Hydroxypropyl Distarch Glycerol 115 59419-60-2 1979 4 PB80128804
Hydroxypropyl Distarch Phosphate 115 53124-00-8 1979 3 PB80128804
Hydroxypropyl Starch 115 9049-76-7 1979 3 PB80128804
Hydroxypropyl Starch, oxidized 115 68412-86-2 1979 3 PB80128804
Hydroxypropylmethyl cellulose 25 9004-65-3 1973 1 PB274667
Indian Dill Seed 22 8006-75-5 1973 1 184.1282 PB234906
Inositol 51 87-89-8 1975 1 184.1370 PB262660
Invert Sugar 50 57-50-1 1976 2 184.1859 PB262659
Iron - Report on Bioavailability and Utilization of Iron PB 224 122/AS 7439-89-6 1973 There is no conclusion type. PB80178676
Iron - Report on Clinical Research Protocols to Elucidate The Possible Hazards of Increased Iron Enrichment of Cereal Products none assigned by NTIS 7439-89-6 1972 There is no conclusion type.
Iron caprylate (packaging) 35 6535-20-2 1980 1 181.25 PB80178676
Iron linoleate (packaging) 35 7779-63-7 1980 1 181.25 PB80178676
Iron naphthenate 35 1338-14-3 1980 5 181.25 PB80178676
Iron oxides (packaging) 35 1332-37-2 1980 1 186.1374 PB80178676
Iron peptonate 35 977009-72-5 1980 5 PB80178676
Iron polyvinylpyrrolidone 35 977125-47-5 1980 5 PB80178676
Iron tallate (packaging) 35 61788-81-6 1980 1 181.25 PB80178676
Iron, elemental (packaging) 35 7439-89-6 1980 1 184.1375 PB80178676
Isopropyl citrate 84 39413-05-3 1977 1 184.1386 PB280954
Japan wax (packaging) 46b 8001-39-6 1975 5 186.1555 PB262657
D(-)-Lactic acid 116 10326-41-7 1978 1, 4 PB283713
Lactic acid 116 598-82-3 1978 1, 4 PB283713
L(+)-lactic acid 116 79-33-4 1978 1 184.1061 PB283713
Lard (packaging) 91 61789-99-9 1976 1 182.70 PB270368
Lard oil (packaging) 91 8016-28-2 1976 1 182.70 PB270368
Lecithin 106 8002-43-5 1979 1 184.1400 PB301405
Lecithin, hydrogen peroxide bleached 106 92128-87-5 1979 1 184.1400 PB301405
Licorice 28 1405-86-3 1974 2 184.1408 PB254529
Linoleic acid 65 60-33-3 1975 1 184.1065 PB274475
Magnesium carbonate 60 39409-82-0 1979 1 184.1425 PB265509
Magnesium chloride 60 7786-30-3 1979 1 184.1426 PB265509
Magnesium gluconate 78 3632-91-5 1978 1 PB288675
Magnesium glycerophosphate (packaging) 74 927-20-8 1976 1 181.29 PB265506
Magnesium hydroxide 60 1309-42-8 1979 1 184.1428 PB265509
Magnesium oxide 60 1309-48-4 1979 1 184.1431 PB265509
Magnesium phosphate, dibasic 60 7782-75-4 1979 1 184.1434 PB265509
Magnesium phosphate, tribasic 60 7757-87-1 1979 1 184.1434 PB265509
Magnesium silicate 61 1343-88-0 1979 1 182.2437 PB301402
Magnesium stearate 60 557-04-0 1979 1 184.1440 PB265509
Magnesium sulfate 60 10034-99-8 1979 1 184.1443 PB265509
Malic acid 56 6915-15-7 1975 1 184.1069 PB262662
L-Malic acid 56 97-67-6 1975 1 184.1069 PB262662
Manganese glycerophosphate 74 1320-46-3 1976 1 PB265506
Manganous chloride 67 7773-01-5 1979 5 PB301404
Manganous citrate 67 10024-66-5 1979 5 184.1449 PB301404
Manganous gluconate 67 6485-39-8 1979 5 PB301404
Manganous hypophosphite 73 10043-84-2 1977 1 184.1434 PB274476
Manganous oxide 67 1317-35-7 1979 5 PB301404
Manganous sulfate 67 7785-87-7 1979 5 PB301404
Mannitol 10 69-65-8 1972 1 180.25 PB221953
Methyl acrylate, monomeric (packaging) 88 96-33-3 1977 1 PB276415
Methyl acrylate, polymeric (packaging) 88 9003-21-8 1977 1 181.30 PB276415
Methyl Paraben 8 99-76-3 1972 1 184.1490 PB221950
Methylcellulose 25 9004-67-5 1973 2 182.1480 PB274667
Milo Starch 115 977027-92-1 1979 1 PB80128804
Monoammonium L-glutamate 37a 7558-63-6 1980 2 182.1500 PB80178635
Monopotassium L-glutamate 37a 19473-49-5 1980 2 182.1516 PB80178635
Monosodium L-glutamate 37a 142-47-2 1980 2 182.1 PB80178635
Monostarch Phosphate 115 11120-02-8 1979 2 172.892 PB80128804
Mustard and Oil of Mustard (Brown and Yellow) 16 57-06-7 1975 1 182.10 PB254528
Niacin (nicotinic acid) 108 59-67-6 1979 1 184.1530 PB80112030
Niacinamide (nicotinamide) 108 98-92-0 1979 1 184.1535 PB80112030
Nickel (elemental) 97 7440-02-0 1979 1 184.1537 PB80104623
Nutmeg and Mace 18 977051-44-7;
977051-14-1
1973 3 182.10 PB266878
Oil of Rue 14 8014-29-7 1973 2 184.1699 PB223839
Oleic acid (packaging) 65 112-80-1 1975 1 PB274475
Ox bile extract 44 8008-63-7 1975 1 184.1560 PB254524
D-Pantothenyl alcohol 93 81-13-0 1978 1 582.5580 PB288672
Papain 77 9001-73-4 1977 1 184.1585 PB274174
Peanut oil (packaging) 65 8002-03-7 1975 1 PB274475
Pectin, amidated 81 56645-02-4 1977 1 184.1588 PB274477
Pectin, high ester 81 9000-69-5 1977 1 184.1588 PB274477
Pectin, low acid 81 There is no ID Code 1977 1 184.1588 PB274477
Pectinates 81 9005-59-8 1977 1 184.1588 PB274477
Pectinic acid 81 9046-40-6 1977 1 184.1588 PB274477
Perlite (filter aid) 61 93763-70-3 1979 1 PB301402
Phosphated Distarch Phosphate 115 977043-58-5 1979 2 172.892 PB80128804
Phosphoric acid 32 7664-38-2 1975 1 182.1073 PB262651
L(+)-potassium acid tartrate 107 868-14-4 1979 1 184.1077 PB301403
Potassium alginate 24 9005-36-1 1973 2 184.1610 PB265503
Potassium bicarbonate 26 298-14-6 1975 1 184.1613 PB254535
Potassium carbonate 26 584-08-7 1975 1 184.1619 PB254535
Potassium chloride 102 7447-40-7 1979 1 184.1622 PB298139
Potassium citrate 84 6100-05-6 1977 1 184.1625 PB280954
Potassium gluconate 78 299-27-4 1978 1 PB288675
Potassium glycerophosphate 74 1319-70-6 1976 1 PB265506
Potassium hydroxide 85 1310-58-3 1976 1 184.1631 PB265507
Potassium hypophosphite 73 7782-87-8 1977 1 PB274476
Potassium iodate 39 7758-05-6 1975 1 184.1635 PB254533
Potassium iodide 39 7681-11-0 1975 1 184.1634 PB254533
Potassium metabisulfite 15 16731-55-8 1976 2 182.3637 PB265508
Potassium phosphate dibasic 32 7758-11-4 1975 1 PB262651
Potassium phosphate monobasic 32 7778-77-0 1975 1 PB262651
Potassium phosphate tribasic 32 7778-53-2 1975 1 PB262651
Potassium polymetaphosphate 32 7790-53-6 1975 1 PB262651
Potassium pyrophosphate 32 7320-34-5 1975 1 PB262651
Potassium silicate 61 1312-76-1 1979 1 PB301402
Potassium sorbate 57 24634-61-5 1975 1 182.3640 PB262663
Potassium tripolyphosphate 32 13845-36-8 1975 1 PB262651
Potato starch 115 977000-07-9 1979 1