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U.S. Department of Health and Human Services

FDA Poisonous Plant Database

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AUTHOR(S): Sakai, W. S.
TITLE: Aroid root crops, acridity, and raphides.
YEAR: 1979 CITATION: Inglett GE, Charalambous G (eds.) Tropical foods: Chemistry and nutrition. Academic Press. New York, 1(), 265-278 [English]
FDA #: F06869
ABSTRACT: Aroid root crops appear to be very good sources of carbohydrate and perhaps thiamine, niacin, calcium, phosphorus, and iron. Colocasia and Xanthosoma are cultivated to a greater extent and offer the best possibility for development in the future. These two genera have cultivars which have large amounts of carbohydrate, low acridity, and low fiber content. More research needs to be done on the problems of acridity and processing, however, at present, it appears that selection of non-acrid cultivars with other desirable agronomic characters appears to offer the best avenue of removing acridity. The three genera Cyrtosperma, Alocasia, and Amorphophallus should be examined for genetic variability in carbohydrate content, fiber content, acridity, and other agronomic characters to see if they can be developed into better food crops in the areas where they are grown. These crops are important since in some areas they are the principal starch source. At present, the acridity associated with smaller raphides (80 micrometers or less) appears to be attributable to the presence of a toxin. Larger raphides (150 micrometers or less) with barbs and grooves may cause acridity alone. It also appears that very large raphides (240 micrometers or less) without barbs or grooves may alone also cause acridity. The toxin for Colocasia has been determined, however, other aroid root crops should be examined to determine if this toxin is the same. Further study of the structure, size and occurrence of raphides in aroid root crops in relation to acridity need to be made in order to further determine the exact cause of acridity.
FDA #: F06869
GRIN #: 280G Exit Disclaimer
COMMON NAME
STANDARD COMMON NAME
FAMILYAgapanthaceae
LATIN NAMEAgapanthus
STANDARD PLANT NAMEAgapanthus sp.
FDA #: F06869
GRIN #: 3687G Exit Disclaimer
COMMON NAME: dumb cane
STANDARD COMMON NAME
FAMILYAraceae
LATIN NAMEDieffenbachia
STANDARD PLANT NAMEDieffenbachia sp.
GRIN #: 312725 Exit Disclaimer
COMMON NAME
STANDARD COMMON NAME
FAMILYAraceae
LATIN NAMEPothos
STANDARD PLANT NAMEEpipremnum pinnatum (L.) Engl.
GRIN #: 19427 Exit Disclaimer
COMMON NAME
STANDARD COMMON NAME
FAMILYHyacinthaceae
LATIN NAMEHyacinth
STANDARD PLANT NAMEHyacinthus orientalis L.
FDA #: F06869
GRIN #: 5922G Exit Disclaimer
COMMON NAME
STANDARD COMMON NAME
FAMILYCactaceae
LATIN NAMEHylocereus
STANDARD PLANT NAMEHylocereus sp.
FDA #: F06869
GRIN #: 6027G Exit Disclaimer
COMMON NAME
STANDARD COMMON NAME
FAMILYBalsaminaceae
LATIN NAMEImpatiens
STANDARD PLANT NAMEImpatiens sp.
FDA #: F06869
GRIN #: 7782G Exit Disclaimer
COMMON NAME
STANDARD COMMON NAME
FAMILYAraceae
LATIN NAMEMonstera
STANDARD PLANT NAMEMonstera sp.
FDA #: F06869
GRIN #: 9242G Exit Disclaimer
COMMON NAME
STANDARD COMMON NAME
FAMILYAraceae
LATIN NAMEPhilodendron
STANDARD PLANT NAMEPhilodendron sp.
FDA #: F06869
GRIN #: 9449G Exit Disclaimer
COMMON NAME
STANDARD COMMON NAME
FAMILYAraceae
LATIN NAMEPistia
STANDARD PLANT NAMEPistia sp.
FDA #: F06869
GRIN #: 10132G Exit Disclaimer
COMMON NAME
STANDARD COMMON NAME
FAMILYArecaceae
LATIN NAMEPtychosperma
STANDARD PLANT NAMEPtychosperma sp.
GRIN #: 400340 Exit Disclaimer
COMMON NAME: skunk cabbage
STANDARD COMMON NAME: skunk cabbage
FAMILYAraceae
LATIN NAMESymplocarpus
STANDARD PLANT NAMESymplocarpus foetidus (L.) Salisb. ex W. P. C. Barton
FDA #: F06869
GRIN #: 12239G Exit Disclaimer
COMMON NAME
STANDARD COMMON NAME
FAMILYCommelinaceae
LATIN NAMETradescantia
STANDARD PLANT NAMETradescantia sp.
GRIN #: 317804 Exit Disclaimer
COMMON NAME
STANDARD COMMON NAME
FAMILYCommelinaceae
LATIN NAMERhoeo
STANDARD PLANT NAMETradescantia spathacea Sw.
GRIN #: 319763 Exit Disclaimer
COMMON NAME
STANDARD COMMON NAME
FAMILYCommelinaceae
LATIN NAMEZebrina
STANDARD PLANT NAMETradescantia zebrina hort. ex Bosse
GRIN #: 42173 Exit Disclaimer
COMMON NAME
STANDARD COMMON NAME
FAMILYAraceae
LATIN NAMECalla
STANDARD PLANT NAMEZantedeschia aethiopica (L.) Spreng.
GRIN #: 2492 Exit Disclaimer
COMMON NAME: elephant ear
STANDARD COMMON NAME
FAMILYAraceae
LATIN NAMEAlocasia macrorrhiza (L.) Schott
STANDARD PLANT NAMEAlocasia macrorrhizos (L.) G. Don
FDA #: F06869
GRIN #: 440G Exit Disclaimer
COMMON NAME
STANDARD COMMON NAME
FAMILYAloaceae
LATIN NAMEAloe
STANDARD PLANT NAMEAloe sp.
FDA #: F06869
GRIN #: USDA Exit Disclaimer
COMMON NAME
STANDARD COMMON NAME: elephant yam
FAMILYAraceae
LATIN NAMEAmorphophallus campanulatus (Roxb.) Blume
STANDARD PLANT NAMEAmorphophallus paeoniifolius (Dennst.) Nicolson
FDA #: F06869
GRIN #: 777G Exit Disclaimer
COMMON NAME
STANDARD COMMON NAME
FAMILYAraceae
LATIN NAMEAnthurium
STANDARD PLANT NAMEAnthurium sp.
FDA #: F06869
GRIN #: 940G Exit Disclaimer
COMMON NAME
STANDARD COMMON NAME
FAMILYArecaceae
LATIN NAMEArenga
STANDARD PLANT NAMEArenga sp.
GRIN #: 4018 Exit Disclaimer
COMMON NAME: jack-in-the-pulpit
STANDARD COMMON NAME: Jack-in-the-pulpit
FAMILYAraceae
LATIN NAMEArisaema
STANDARD PLANT NAMEArisaema triphyllum (L.) Schott
FDA #: F06869
GRIN #: 2189G Exit Disclaimer
COMMON NAME
STANDARD COMMON NAME
FAMILYOrchidaceae
LATIN NAMECattleya
STANDARD PLANT NAMECattleya sp.
FDA #: F06869
GRIN #: 2514G Exit Disclaimer
COMMON NAME
STANDARD COMMON NAME
FAMILYAnthericaceae
LATIN NAMEChlorophytum
STANDARD PLANT NAMEChlorophytum sp.
FDA #: F06869
GRIN #: 14058G Exit Disclaimer
COMMON NAME
STANDARD COMMON NAME
FAMILYLamiaceae
LATIN NAMEColeus
STANDARD PLANT NAMEColeus sp.
GRIN #: 11177 Exit Disclaimer
COMMON NAME: taro
STANDARD COMMON NAME: taro
FAMILYAraceae
LATIN NAMEColocasia esculenta (L.) Schott var. esculenta
STANDARD PLANT NAMEColocasia esculenta (L.) Schott
FDA #: F06869
GRIN #: 2846G Exit Disclaimer
COMMON NAME
STANDARD COMMON NAME
FAMILYCommelinaceae
LATIN NAMECommelina
STANDARD PLANT NAMECommelina sp.
GRIN #: 12943 Exit Disclaimer
COMMON NAME: giant swamp taro
STANDARD COMMON NAME
FAMILYAraceae
LATIN NAMECyrtosperma chamissonis (Schott) Merrill
STANDARD PLANT NAMECyrtosperma merkusii (Hassk.) Schott
FDA #: F06869
GRIN #: 3328G Exit Disclaimer
COMMON NAME
STANDARD COMMON NAME
FAMILYAraceae
LATIN NAMECyrtosperma
STANDARD PLANT NAMECyrtosperma sp.
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