• Decrease font size
  • Return font size to normal
  • Increase font size
U.S. Department of Health and Human Services

FDA Poisonous Plant Database

  • Print
  • Share
  • E-mail
-
AUTHOR(S): Burrows, G. E.; Tyrl, R. J.
TITLE: Plants causing sudden death in livestock.
YEAR: 1989 CITATION: Vet Clin North Am Food Anim Pract, 5(2), 263-289 [English]
FDA #: F08647
ABSTRACT: A number of plants are capable of producing intoxication of sufficient severity as to cause death within 12 hours of the onset of clinical signs. Those most rapid in their lethal effects are the cyanogenic plants and yew. Nitrate-accumulating plants likewise are capable of causing sudden death with only a brief appearance of signs. Most toxic plants, however, typically either require a longer time for the intoxication to develop and become lethal or sudden death is the exception rather than the rule following ingestion. In these cases, diagnosis of the problem may be facilitated by recognition of arrays of clinical signs that appear. Seven major groups of presenting signs can be distinguished: dyspnea and polypnea, hemorrhage, prominent excessive muscular activity, depression and/or weakness, diarrhea and weakness, excessive salivation and/or regurgitation and/or colic, and weakness and incoordination and/or tremors. Based on these and accompanying signs in surviving animals, many of the causes of sudden death can be differentiated. In addition, pathological changes visible on necropsy and identification of plant fragments in the rumen and stomach may be of diagnostic value.
GRIN #: 2803 Exit Disclaimer
COMMON NAME: pigweed
STANDARD COMMON NAME
FAMILYAmaranthaceae
LATIN NAMEAmaranthus
STANDARD PLANT NAMEAmaranthus retroflexus L.
FDA #: F08647
GRIN #: 509G Exit Disclaimer
COMMON NAME: serviceberry
STANDARD COMMON NAME
FAMILYRosaceae
LATIN NAMEAmelanchier
STANDARD PLANT NAMEAmelanchier sp.
GRIN #: 432267 Exit Disclaimer
COMMON NAME: white camas
STANDARD COMMON NAME
FAMILYMelanthiaceae
LATIN NAMEZigadenus elegans
STANDARD PLANT NAMEAnticlea elegans (Pursh) Rydb.
GRIN #: 402527 Exit Disclaimer
COMMON NAME: antelope horns milkweed
STANDARD COMMON NAME: inmortal
FAMILYAsclepiadaceae
LATIN NAMEAsclepias asperula
STANDARD PLANT NAMEAsclepias asperula (Decne.) Woodson
GRIN #: 404184 Exit Disclaimer
COMMON NAME: Indian milkweed
STANDARD COMMON NAME
FAMILYAsclepiadaceae
LATIN NAMEAsclepias eriocarpa
STANDARD PLANT NAMEAsclepias eriocarpa Benth.
FDA #: F08647
GRIN #: NoSource Exit Disclaimer
COMMON NAME: narrow-leaf milkweed
STANDARD COMMON NAME
FAMILYAsclepiadaceae
LATIN NAMEAsclepias fascicularis
STANDARD PLANT NAMEAsclepias fascicularis Decne.
GRIN #: 316571 Exit Disclaimer
COMMON NAME: labriform milkweed
STANDARD COMMON NAME
FAMILYAsclepiadaceae
LATIN NAMEAsclepias labriformis
STANDARD PLANT NAMEAsclepias labriformis M. E. Jones
GRIN #: 404185 Exit Disclaimer
COMMON NAME: broad-leaf milkweed
STANDARD COMMON NAME
FAMILYAsclepiadaceae
LATIN NAMEAsclepias latifolia
STANDARD PLANT NAMEAsclepias latifolia (Torr.) Raf.
GRIN #: 316573 Exit Disclaimer
COMMON NAME: plains milkweed
STANDARD COMMON NAME
FAMILYAsclepiadaceae
LATIN NAMEAsclepias pumila
STANDARD PLANT NAMEAsclepias pumila (A. Gray) Vail
FDA #: F08647
GRIN #: 1031G Exit Disclaimer
COMMON NAME: milkweed
STANDARD COMMON NAME
FAMILYAsclepiadaceae
LATIN NAMEAsclepias
STANDARD PLANT NAMEAsclepias sp.
GRIN #: 316574 Exit Disclaimer
COMMON NAME: showy milkweed
STANDARD COMMON NAME
FAMILYAsclepiadaceae
LATIN NAMEAsclepias speciosa
STANDARD PLANT NAMEAsclepias speciosa Torr.
GRIN #: 316575 Exit Disclaimer
COMMON NAME: horsetail milkweed
STANDARD COMMON NAME
FAMILYAsclepiadaceae
LATIN NAMEAsclepias subverticillata
STANDARD PLANT NAMEAsclepias subverticillata (A. Gray) Vail
GRIN #: 4478 Exit Disclaimer
COMMON NAME: summer milkweed
STANDARD COMMON NAME: milkweed
FAMILYAsclepiadaceae
LATIN NAMEAsclepias syriaca
STANDARD PLANT NAMEAsclepias syriaca L.
GRIN #: 4480 Exit Disclaimer
COMMON NAME: butterfly milkweed
STANDARD COMMON NAME: butterfly weed
FAMILYAsclepiadaceae
LATIN NAMEAsclepias tuberosa
STANDARD PLANT NAMEAsclepias tuberosa L.
GRIN #: 103167 Exit Disclaimer
COMMON NAME: eastern whorled milkweed
STANDARD COMMON NAME
FAMILYAsclepiadaceae
LATIN NAMEAsclepias verticillata
STANDARD PLANT NAMEAsclepias verticillata L.
GRIN #: 417796 Exit Disclaimer
COMMON NAME: green milkweed
STANDARD COMMON NAME
FAMILYAsclepiadaceae
LATIN NAMEAsclepias viridis
STANDARD PLANT NAMEAsclepias viridis Walter
FDA #: F08647
GRIN #: 1146G Exit Disclaimer
COMMON NAME: saltbush
STANDARD COMMON NAME
FAMILYChenopodiaceae
LATIN NAMEAtriplex
STANDARD PLANT NAMEAtriplex sp.
GRIN #: 404228 Exit Disclaimer
COMMON NAME: summer cypress
STANDARD COMMON NAME: summer cypress
FAMILYChenopodiaceae
LATIN NAMEKochia scoparia
STANDARD PLANT NAMEBassia scoparia (L.) A. J. Scott
FDA #: F08647
GRIN #: 1321G Exit Disclaimer
COMMON NAME: bassia
STANDARD COMMON NAME
FAMILYChenopodiaceae
LATIN NAMEBassia
STANDARD PLANT NAMEBassia sp.
GRIN #: 7057 Exit Disclaimer
COMMON NAME: beet
STANDARD COMMON NAME: beet
FAMILYChenopodiaceae
LATIN NAMEBeta
STANDARD PLANT NAMEBeta vulgaris L. subsp. vulgaris
GRIN #: 311781 Exit Disclaimer
COMMON NAME: rape
STANDARD COMMON NAME
FAMILYBrassicaceae
LATIN NAME
STANDARD PLANT NAMEBrassica napus L. var. napus
GRIN #: 7668 Exit Disclaimer
COMMON NAME: kale
STANDARD COMMON NAME
FAMILYBrassicaceae
LATIN NAME
STANDARD PLANT NAMEBrassica oleracea L.
GRIN #: 316592 Exit Disclaimer
COMMON NAME: turnip
STANDARD COMMON NAME: turnip
FAMILYBrassicaceae
LATIN NAME
STANDARD PLANT NAMEBrassica rapa L. subsp. rapa
FDA #: F08647
GRIN #: 1826G Exit Disclaimer
COMMON NAME: box
STANDARD COMMON NAME
FAMILYBuxaceae
LATIN NAMEBuxus
STANDARD PLANT NAMEBuxus sp.
FDA #: F08647
GRIN #: 2316G Exit Disclaimer
COMMON NAME: mountain mahogany
STANDARD COMMON NAME
FAMILYRosaceae
LATIN NAMECercocarpus
STANDARD PLANT NAMECercocarpus sp.
GRIN #: 10545 Exit Disclaimer
COMMON NAME: water hemlock
STANDARD COMMON NAME
FAMILYApiaceae
LATIN NAMECicuta maculata
STANDARD PLANT NAMECicuta maculata L.
FDA #: F08647
GRIN #: 2605G Exit Disclaimer
COMMON NAME: water hemlock
STANDARD COMMON NAME
FAMILYApiaceae
LATIN NAMECicuta
STANDARD PLANT NAMECicuta sp.
FDA #: F08647
GRIN #: 3482G Exit Disclaimer
COMMON NAME: larkspur
STANDARD COMMON NAME
FAMILYRanunculaceae
LATIN NAMEDelphinium
STANDARD PLANT NAMEDelphinium sp.
GRIN #: 311156 Exit Disclaimer
COMMON NAME: halogeton
STANDARD COMMON NAME
FAMILYChenopodiaceae
LATIN NAMEHalogeton
STANDARD PLANT NAMEHalogeton glomeratus (M. Bieb.) C. A. Mey.
GRIN #: 19124 Exit Disclaimer
COMMON NAME: mannagrass
STANDARD COMMON NAME
FAMILYPoaceae
LATIN NAMEGlyceria
STANDARD PLANT NAMEHierochloe odorata (L.) P. Beauv.
GRIN #: 19333 Exit Disclaimer
COMMON NAME: barley
STANDARD COMMON NAME: barley
FAMILYPoaceae
LATIN NAMEHordeum
STANDARD PLANT NAMEHordeum vulgare L. subsp. vulgare
FDA #: F08647
GRIN #: 6253G Exit Disclaimer
COMMON NAME: laurel
STANDARD COMMON NAME
FAMILYEricaceae
LATIN NAMEKalmia
STANDARD PLANT NAMEKalmia sp.
FDA #: F08647
GRIN #: 15043G Exit Disclaimer
COMMON NAME: summer cypress
STANDARD COMMON NAME
FAMILYChenopodiaceae
LATIN NAMEKochia
STANDARD PLANT NAMEKochia sp.
FDA #: F08647
GRIN #: 6796G Exit Disclaimer
COMMON NAME: laurel
STANDARD COMMON NAME
FAMILYEricaceae
LATIN NAMELeucothoe
STANDARD PLANT NAMELeucothoe sp.
FDA #: F08647
GRIN #: 6825G Exit Disclaimer
COMMON NAME: privet
STANDARD COMMON NAME
FAMILYOleaceae
LATIN NAMELigustrum
STANDARD PLANT NAMELigustrum sp.
FDA #: F08647
GRIN #: 6984G Exit Disclaimer
COMMON NAME: trefoil
STANDARD COMMON NAME
FAMILYFabaceae
LATIN NAMELotus
STANDARD PLANT NAMELotus sp.
GRIN #: 104681 Exit Disclaimer
COMMON NAME: apple
STANDARD COMMON NAME: apple
FAMILYRosaceae
LATIN NAMEMalus
STANDARD PLANT NAMEMalus domestica Borkh.
GRIN #: 23676 Exit Disclaimer
COMMON NAME: alfalfa
STANDARD COMMON NAME: alfalfa
FAMILYFabaceae
LATIN NAME
STANDARD PLANT NAMEMedicago sativa L.
GRIN #: 23989 Exit Disclaimer
COMMON NAME: white sweet clover
STANDARD COMMON NAME: white sweetclover
FAMILYFabaceae
LATIN NAMEMelilotus albus
STANDARD PLANT NAMEMelilotus albus Medik.
GRIN #: 24009 Exit Disclaimer
COMMON NAME: yellow sweet clover
STANDARD COMMON NAME: yellow sweetclover
FAMILYFabaceae
LATIN NAMEMelilotus officinalis
STANDARD PLANT NAMEMelilotus officinalis (L.) Lam.
FDA #: F08647
GRIN #: 7430G Exit Disclaimer
COMMON NAME: sweet clover
STANDARD COMMON NAME
FAMILYFabaceae
LATIN NAMEMelilotus
STANDARD PLANT NAMEMelilotus sp.
FDA #: F08647
GRIN #: 7966G Exit Disclaimer
COMMON NAME: heavenly bamboo
STANDARD COMMON NAME
FAMILYBerberidaceae
LATIN NAMENandina
STANDARD PLANT NAMENandina sp.
GRIN #: 25229 Exit Disclaimer
COMMON NAME: oleander
STANDARD COMMON NAME: oleander
FAMILYApocynaceae
LATIN NAMENerium oleander
STANDARD PLANT NAMENerium oleander L.
GRIN #: 102419 Exit Disclaimer
COMMON NAME: coyote tobacco
STANDARD COMMON NAME
FAMILYSolanaceae
LATIN NAMENicotiana attenuata
STANDARD PLANT NAMENicotiana attenuata Torr. ex S. Watson
GRIN #: 25270 Exit Disclaimer
COMMON NAME: tree tobacco
STANDARD COMMON NAME: tree tobacco
FAMILYSolanaceae
LATIN NAMENicotiana glauca
STANDARD PLANT NAMENicotiana glauca Graham
GRIN #: 409870 Exit Disclaimer
COMMON NAME: desert tobacco
STANDARD COMMON NAME
FAMILYSolanaceae
LATIN NAMENicotiana trigonophylla
STANDARD PLANT NAMENicotiana obtusifolia M. Martens & Galeotti
GRIN #: 25309 Exit Disclaimer
COMMON NAME: tobacco
STANDARD COMMON NAME: tobacco
FAMILYSolanaceae
LATIN NAMENicotiana
STANDARD PLANT NAMENicotiana tabacum L.
FDA #: F08647
GRIN #: 8681G Exit Disclaimer
COMMON NAME: sheep sorrel
STANDARD COMMON NAME
FAMILYOxalidaceae
LATIN NAMEOxalis
STANDARD PLANT NAMEOxalis sp.
GRIN #: 27364 Exit Disclaimer
COMMON NAME: purple mint
STANDARD COMMON NAME: perilla
FAMILYLamiaceae
LATIN NAMEPerilla frutescens
STANDARD PLANT NAMEPerilla frutescens (L.) Britton
FDA #: F08647
GRIN #: 9277G Exit Disclaimer
COMMON NAME: photinia
STANDARD COMMON NAME
FAMILYRosaceae
LATIN NAMEPhotinia
STANDARD PLANT NAMEPhotinia sp.
FDA #: F08647
GRIN #: 9380G Exit Disclaimer
COMMON NAME: pieris
STANDARD COMMON NAME
FAMILYEricaceae
LATIN NAMEPieris
STANDARD PLANT NAMEPieris sp.
GRIN #: 29841 Exit Disclaimer
COMMON NAME: apricot
STANDARD COMMON NAME: apricot
FAMILYRosaceae
LATIN NAME
STANDARD PLANT NAMEPrunus armeniaca L.
GRIN #: 29888 Exit Disclaimer
COMMON NAME: plum
STANDARD COMMON NAME: plum
FAMILYRosaceae
LATIN NAME
STANDARD PLANT NAMEPrunus domestica L.
GRIN #: 30027 Exit Disclaimer
COMMON NAME: cherry laurel
STANDARD COMMON NAME: cherry laurel
FAMILYRosaceae
LATIN NAMEPrunus laurocerasus
STANDARD PLANT NAMEPrunus laurocerasus L.
GRIN #: 409345 Exit Disclaimer
COMMON NAME: bagpod
STANDARD COMMON NAME
FAMILYFabaceae
LATIN NAMESesbania vesicaria
STANDARD PLANT NAMESesbania vesicaria (Jacq.) Elliott
GRIN #: 30151 Exit Disclaimer
COMMON NAME: choke cherry
STANDARD COMMON NAME: chokecherry
FAMILYRosaceae
LATIN NAMEPrunus virginiana
STANDARD PLANT NAMEPrunus virginiana L.
FDA #: F08647
GRIN #: 10203G Exit Disclaimer
COMMON NAME: oak
STANDARD COMMON NAME
FAMILYFagaceae
LATIN NAMEQuercus
STANDARD PLANT NAMEQuercus sp.
FDA #: F08647
GRIN #: 10404G Exit Disclaimer
COMMON NAME: rhododendron
STANDARD COMMON NAME
FAMILYEricaceae
LATIN NAMERhododendron
STANDARD PLANT NAMERhododendron sp.
FDA #: F08647
GRIN #: 10584G Exit Disclaimer
COMMON NAME: dock
STANDARD COMMON NAME
FAMILYPolygonaceae
LATIN NAMERumex
STANDARD PLANT NAMERumex sp.
FDA #: F08647
GRIN #: 11303G Exit Disclaimer
COMMON NAME: Indian grass
STANDARD COMMON NAME
FAMILYPoaceae
LATIN NAMESorgastrum
STANDARD PLANT NAMESorghastrum sp.
GRIN #: 35129 Exit Disclaimer
COMMON NAME: Columbus grass
STANDARD COMMON NAME
FAMILYPoaceae
LATIN NAMESorghum almum
STANDARD PLANT NAMESorghum ×almum Parodi
GRIN #: 35113 Exit Disclaimer
COMMON NAME: sudan
STANDARD COMMON NAME
FAMILYPoaceae
LATIN NAME
STANDARD PLANT NAMESorghum ×drummondii (Steud.) Millsp. & Chase
GRIN #: 35092 Exit Disclaimer
COMMON NAME: sorghum
STANDARD COMMON NAME
FAMILYPoaceae
LATIN NAMESorghum
STANDARD PLANT NAMESorghum bicolor (L.) Moench
GRIN #: 35119 Exit Disclaimer
COMMON NAME: Johnson grass
STANDARD COMMON NAME
FAMILYPoaceae
LATIN NAMESorghum halepense
STANDARD PLANT NAMESorghum halepense (L.) Pers.
GRIN #: 432241 Exit Disclaimer
COMMON NAME: black snakeroot
STANDARD COMMON NAME
FAMILYMelanthiaceae
LATIN NAMEZigadenus densus
STANDARD PLANT NAMEStenanthium densum (Desr.) Zomlefer & Judd
GRIN #: 410170 Exit Disclaimer
COMMON NAME: queen's delight
STANDARD COMMON NAME
FAMILYEuphorbiaceae
LATIN NAMEStillingia
STANDARD PLANT NAMEStillingia treculiana (Müll. Arg.) I. M. Johnst.
GRIN #: 311264 Exit Disclaimer
COMMON NAME: poison suckleya
STANDARD COMMON NAME
FAMILYChenopodiaceae
LATIN NAMESuckleya
STANDARD PLANT NAMESuckleya suckleyana (Torr.) Rydb.
GRIN #: 314459 Exit Disclaimer
COMMON NAME: Hicks yew
STANDARD COMMON NAME
FAMILYTaxaceae
LATIN NAMETaxus media
STANDARD PLANT NAMETaxus ×media Rehder
GRIN #: 80070 Exit Disclaimer
COMMON NAME: English yew
STANDARD COMMON NAME: English yew
FAMILYTaxaceae
LATIN NAMETaxus baccata
STANDARD PLANT NAMETaxus baccata L.
GRIN #: 80073 Exit Disclaimer
COMMON NAME: Japanese yew
STANDARD COMMON NAME
FAMILYTaxaceae
LATIN NAMETaxus cuspidata
STANDARD PLANT NAMETaxus cuspidata Siebold & Zucc.
FDA #: F08647
GRIN #: 11900G Exit Disclaimer
COMMON NAME: yew
STANDARD COMMON NAME
FAMILYTaxaceae
LATIN NAMETaxus
STANDARD PLANT NAMETaxus sp.
GRIN #: 432259 Exit Disclaimer
COMMON NAME: death camas
STANDARD COMMON NAME
FAMILYMelanthiaceae
LATIN NAMEZigadenus nuttallii
STANDARD PLANT NAMEToxicoscordion nuttallii (A. Gray) Rydb.
FDA #: F08647
GRIN #: 12357G Exit Disclaimer
COMMON NAME: clover
STANDARD COMMON NAME
FAMILYFabaceae
LATIN NAMETrifolium
STANDARD PLANT NAMETrifolium sp.
GRIN #: 40544 Exit Disclaimer
COMMON NAME: wheat
STANDARD COMMON NAME: wheat
FAMILYPoaceae
LATIN NAMETriticum
STANDARD PLANT NAMETriticum aestivum L. subsp. aestivum
GRIN #: 42072 Exit Disclaimer
COMMON NAME: cocklebur
STANDARD COMMON NAME
FAMILYAsteraceae
LATIN NAMEXanthium strumarium
STANDARD PLANT NAMEXanthium strumarium L.
GRIN #: 311987 Exit Disclaimer
COMMON NAME: corn
STANDARD COMMON NAME: corn
FAMILYPoaceae
LATIN NAMEZea
STANDARD PLANT NAMEZea mays L. subsp. mays
GRIN #: 410356 Exit Disclaimer
COMMON NAME: southern camas
STANDARD COMMON NAME
FAMILYLiliaceae
LATIN NAMEZigadenus glaberrimus
STANDARD PLANT NAMEZigadenus glaberrimus Michx.
FDA #: F08647
GRIN #: 13042G Exit Disclaimer
COMMON NAME: death camas
STANDARD COMMON NAME
FAMILYLiliaceae
LATIN NAMEZigadenus
STANDARD PLANT NAMEZigadenus sp.
GRIN #: 30065 Exit Disclaimer
COMMON NAME: peach
STANDARD COMMON NAME: peach
FAMILYRosaceae
LATIN NAME
STANDARD PLANT NAMEPrunus persica (L.) Batsch
GRIN #: 30099 Exit Disclaimer
COMMON NAME: black cherry
STANDARD COMMON NAME: black cherry
FAMILYRosaceae
LATIN NAMEPrunus serotina
STANDARD PLANT NAMEPrunus serotina Ehrh.
FDA #: F08647
GRIN #: 9887G Exit Disclaimer
COMMON NAME: cherry
STANDARD COMMON NAME
FAMILYRosaceae
LATIN NAME
STANDARD PLANT NAMEPrunus sp.
FDA #: F08647
GRIN #: 10679G Exit Disclaimer
COMMON NAME: elderberry
STANDARD COMMON NAME
FAMILYCaprifoliaceae
LATIN NAMESambucus
STANDARD PLANT NAMESambucus sp.
GRIN #: 105067 Exit Disclaimer
COMMON NAME: greasewood
STANDARD COMMON NAME
FAMILYSarcobataceae
LATIN NAMESarcobatus
STANDARD PLANT NAMESarcobatus vermiculatus (Hook.) Torr.
-
-