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U.S. Department of Health and Human Services

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Toxicon 2012 Nov;60(6):1030-40

Characterization of brevetoxin metabolism in Karenia brevis bloom-exposed clams (Mercenaria sp.) by LC-MS/MS.

Abraham A, Wang Y, El Said KR, Plakas SM


Brevetoxin metabolites were identified and characterized in the hard clam (Mercenaria sp.) after natural exposure to Karenia brevis blooms by using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). Principal brevetoxins BTX-1 and BTX-2 produced by K. brevis were not detectable in clams. Metabolites of these brevetoxins found in clams included products of oxidation, reduction, hydrolysis and amino acid/fatty acid conjugation. Of highest abundance were cysteine and taurine conjugates. We also found glutathione, glycine-cysteine, and gamma-glutamyl-cysteine conjugates. A series of fatty acid derivatives of cysteine-brevetoxin conjugates were also identified.

Category: Journal Article
PubMed ID: #22884629 DOI: 10.1016/j.toxicon.2012.06.016
Includes FDA Authors from Scientific Area(s): Food
Entry Created: 2012-08-14 Entry Last Modified: 2012-11-23