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J Toxicol Environ Health A 2013 May;76(8):491-508

Antioxidant responses and renal crystal formation in rainbow trout treated with melamine administered individually or in combination with cyanuric acid.

Pacini N, Prearo M, Abete MC, Brizio P, Dorr AJ, Reimschuessel R, Andersen W, Gasco L, Righetti M, Elia AC


In 2007 and 2008, renal stone formation and kidney damage in human infants were linked to consumption of melamine (MEL)-contaminated infant formula, as well as renal failure and death in pets due to pet food containing both MEL and cyanuric acid (CYA). The aim of this study was to examine the effects of MEL and CYA administered individually or in combination on concentrations of certain metabolites and enzyme activities that serve as markers for oxidative stress in kidney and liver of rainbow trout. In addition, the levels of muscle MEL and renal crystal formation were determined. Trout were fed MEL and/or CYA for 8 wk at 250, 500, or 1000 mg of each compound/kg in feed. Fish muscle residues of MEL exhibited a dose-response relationship. Coexposure of trout to MEL and CYA at the highest dose led to lower MEL residue concentrations in muscle compared to exposure to MEL alone. Renal MEL-CYA complexes were found in kidneys of fish treated with combined MEL and CYA. A dose response was evident with respect to both (1) number of trout displaying renal crystals and (2) number of crystals per fish. Changes in concentration of antioxidant parameters, such as glutathione, superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase, and glutathione S-transferase, were recorded in both tissues of MEL- and CYA-dosed trout. Lipid peroxidation was more pronounced in kidney than liver. Therefore, feed contaminated with both MEL and CYA could be problematic for fish, as MEL administered to trout, individually or in combination with CYA, may facilitate the onset of oxidative damage in trout.

Category: Journal Article
PubMed ID: #23721584 DOI: 10.1080/15287394.2013.785205
Includes FDA Authors from Scientific Area(s): Animal and Veterinary Regulatory Affairs
Entry Created: 2013-07-18