Scientific Publications by FDA Staff
J Virol 2014 Jun;88(11):6453-69
Human metapneumovirus SH and G glycoproteins inhibit macropinocytosis-mediated entry into human dendritic cells and reduce CD4+ T cell activation.
Le Nouen C, Hillyer P, Brock LG, Winter CC, Rabin RL, Collins PL, Buchholz UJ
Human metapneumovirus (HMPV) is a major etiologic agent of respiratory disease worldwide. HMPV reinfections are common in healthy adults and children, suggesting that the protective immune response to HMPV is incomplete and short-lived. We used gene-deletion viruses to evaluate the role of the attachment G and small hydrophobic SH glycoproteins on virus uptake by primary human monocyte-derived dendritic cells (MDDC) in vitro and on subsequent MDDC maturation and activation of autologous T cells. HMPV with deletion of G and SH (DeltaSHG) exhibited increased infectivity but had little effect on MDDC maturation. However, MDDC stimulated with DeltaSHG induced increased proliferation of autologous Th1-polarized CD4(+) T cells. This effect was independent of virus replication. Increased T cell proliferation was strictly dependent on contact between virus-stimulated MDDC and CD4(+) T cells. Confocal microscopy revealed that deletion of SH and G was associated with an increased number of immunological synapses between memory CD4(+) T cells and virus-stimulated MDDC. Uptake of HMPV by MDDC was found to be primarily by macropinocytosis. Uptake of wild-type (WT) virus was reduced compared to that of DeltaSHG, indicative of inhibition by the SH and G glycoproteins. In addition, DC-SIGN-mediated endocytosis provided a minor alternative pathway that depended on SH and/or G and thus operated only for WT. Altogether, our results show that SH and G glycoproteins reduce the ability of HMPV to be internalized by MDDC, resulting in a reduced ability of the HMPV-stimulated MDDC to activate CD4(+) T cells. This study describes a previously unknown mechanism of virus immune evasion. IMPORTANCE: Human metapneumovirus (HMPV) is a major etiologic agent of respiratory disease worldwide. HMPV reinfections are common in healthy adults and children, suggesting that the protective immune response to HMPV is incomplete and short-lived. We found that HMPV attachment G and small hydrophobic SH glycoproteins reduce the ability of HMPV to be internalized by macropinocytosis into human dendritic cells (DC). This results in a reduced ability of the HMPV-stimulated DC to activate Th1-polarized CD4(+) T cells. These results contribute to a better understanding of the nature of incomplete protection against this important human respiratory virus, provide new information on the entry of HMPV into human cells, and describe a new mechanism of virus immune evasion.
|Category: Journal Article|
|PubMed ID: #24672038||DOI: 10.1128/JVI.03261-13|
|Includes FDA Authors from Scientific Area(s): Biologics|
|Entry Created: 2014-06-21|