Drug Safety-related Labeling Changes (SrLC)

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COMBIVIR (NDA-020857)

(LAMIVUDINE; ZIDOVUDINE)

Safety-related Labeling Changes Approved by FDA Center for Drug Evaluation and Research (CDER)

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05/10/2019 (SUPPL-34)

Approved Drug Label (PDF)

8 Use in Specific Populations

8.1 Pregnancy

(Additions and/or revisions are underlined)

Risk Summary

Hyperlactatemia, which may be due to mitochondrial dysfunction, has been reported in infants with in utero exposure to zidovudine-containing products. These events were transient and asymptomatic in most cases. There have been few reports of developmental delay, seizures, and other neurological disease. However, a causal relationship between these events and exposure to zidovudine-containing products in utero or peri-partum has not been established.

Data

Zidovudine has been shown to cross the placenta and concentrations in neonatal plasma at birth were essentially equal to those in maternal plasma at delivery. There have been reports of mild, transient elevations in serum lactate levels, which may be due to mitochondrial dysfunction, in neonates and infants exposed in utero or peri-partum to zidovudine-containing products. There have been few reports of developmental delay, seizures, and other neurological disease. However, a causal relationship between these events and exposure to zidovudine-containing products in utero or peri-partum has not been established. The clinical relevance of transient elevations in serum lactate is unknown.

8.2 Lactation

(Additions and/or revisions are underlined)

Risk Summary

The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention recommends that HIV-1-infected mothers in the United States not breastfeed their infants to avoid risking postnatal transmission of HIV-1 infection. Lamivudine and zidovudine are present in human milk. There is no information on the effects of lamivudine or zidovudine on the breastfed infant or the effects of the drugs on milk production. Because of the potential for (1) HIV-1 transmission (in HIV-negative infants), (2) developing viral resistance (in HIV-positive infants), and (3) adverse reactions in a breastfed infant similar to those seen in adults, instruct mothers not to breastfeed if they are receiving COMBIVIR.

04/27/2018 (SUPPL-33)

Approved Drug Label (PDF)

Boxed Warning

(Additions and/or revisions are underlined)

Lactic acidosis and severe hepatomegaly with steatosis, including fatal cases, have been reported with the use of nucleoside analogues, including lamivudine and zidovudine (components of COMBIVIR). Discontinue COMBIVIR if clinical or laboratory findings suggestive of lactic acidosis or pronounced hepatotoxicity occur.

5 Warnings and Precautions

5.3 Lactic Acidosis and Severe Hepatomegaly with Steatosis

(Additions and/or revisions are underlined)

Lactic acidosis and severe hepatomegaly with steatosis, including fatal cases, have been reported with the use of nucleoside analogues, including lamivudine and zidovudine (components of COMBIVIR). A majority of these cases have been in women. Female sex and obesity may be risk factors for the development of lactic acidosis and severe hepatomegaly with steatosis in patients treated with antiretroviral nucleoside analogues. See full prescribing information for EPIVIR (lamivudine) and RETROVIR (zidovudine)…

5.8 Lipoatrophy

(Additions and/or revisions are underlined)

Treatment with zidovudine, a component of COMBIVIR, has been associated with loss of subcutaneous fat. The incidence and severity of lipoatrophy are related to cumulative exposure. This fat loss, which is most evident in the face, limbs, and buttocks, may be only partially reversible and improvement may take months to years after switching to a non-zidovudine- containing regimen. Patients should be regularly assessed for signs of lipoatrophy during therapy with zidovudine-containing products, and if feasible, therapy should be switched to an alternative regimen if there is suspicion of lipoatrophy.

6 Adverse Reactions

(Additions and/or revisions are underlined)

  • Lipoatrophy

7 Drug Interactions

7.2 Lamivudine

(Newly Added Subsection)

Sorbitol

Coadministration of single doses of lamivudine and sorbitol resulted in a sorbitol dose-dependent reduction in lamivudine exposures. When possible, avoid use of sorbitol-containing medicines with lamivudine-containing medicines.

8 Use in Specific Populations

8.1 Pregnancy

(Additions and/or revisions are underlined)

Data

Human Data: Lamivudine: Based on prospective reports to the APR of over 11,000 exposures to lamivudine during pregnancy resulting in live births (including over 4,500 exposed in the first trimester), there was no difference between the overall risk of birth defects for lamivudinecompared with the background birth defect rate of 2.7% in a U.S. reference population of the MACDP. The prevalence of birth defects in live births was 3.1% (95% CI: 2.6% to 3.6%) following first trimester exposure to lamivudine-containing regimens and 2.8% (95% CI: 2.5% to 3.3%) following second/third trimester exposure to lamivudine-containing regimens.

Zidovudine: Based on prospective reports to the APR of over 13,000 exposures to zidovudine during pregnancy resulting in live births (including over 4,000 exposed in the first trimester), there was no difference between the overall risk of birth defects for zidovudine compared with the background birth defect rate of 2.7% in a U.S. reference population of the MACDP. The prevalence of birth defects in live births was 3.2% (95% CI: 2.7% to 3.8%) following first trimester exposure to zidovudine-containing regimens and 2.8% (95% CI: 2.5% to 3.2%) following second/third trimester exposure to zidovudine-containing regimens

17 PCI/PI/MG (Patient Counseling Information/Patient Information/Medication Guide)

17 PATIENT COUNSELING INFORMATION

(Additions and/or revisions are underlined)

Lipoatrophy

Advise patients that loss of subcutaneous fat may occur in patients receiving COMBIVIR and that they will be regularly assessed during therapy.

04/10/2017 (SUPPL-32)

Approved Drug Label (PDF)

8 Use in Specific Populations

8.1 Pregnancy

(Additions and/or revisions are underlined)

Data

Human Data: Lamivudine: …The prevalence of birth defects in live births was 3.1% (95% CI: 2.6% to 3.6%) following first trimester exposure to lamivudine-containing regimens and 2.8% (95% CI: 2.5% to (3.3%) following second/third trimester exposure to lamivudine-containing regimens.

Zidovudine: …The prevalence of birth defects in live births was 3.2% (95% CI: 2.7% to 3.8%) following first trimester exposure to zidovudine-containing regimens and 2.8% (95% CI: 2.5% to 3.2%) following second/third trimester exposure to zidovudine-containing regimens.

02/24/2017 (SUPPL-31)

Approved Drug Label (PDF)

Boxed Warning

Additions underlined:

WARNING: HEMATOLOGIC TOXICITY, MYOPATHY, LACTIC ACIDOSIS AND SEVERE HEPATOMEGALY WITH STEATOSIS, and EXACERBATIONS OF HEPATITIS B

8 Use in Specific Populations

8.1 Pregnancy

PLLR conversion as below:

Pregnancy Exposure Registry

There is a pregnancy exposure registry that monitors pregnancy outcomes in women exposed to COMBIVIR during pregnancy. Healthcare providers are encouraged to register patients by calling the Antiretroviral Pregnancy Registry (APR) at 1-800-258-4263.

Risk Summary

Available data from the APR show no difference in the overall risk of birth defects for lamivudine or zidovudine compared with the background rate for birth defects of 2.7% in the Metropolitan Atlanta Congenital Defects Program (MACDP) reference population. The APR uses the MACDP as the U.S. reference population for birth defects in the general population. The MACDP evaluates women and infants from a limited geographic area and does not include outcomes for births that occurred at less than 20 weeks gestation. The rate of miscarriage is not reported in the APR. The estimated background rate of miscarriage in clinically recognized pregnancies in the U.S. general population is 15% to 20%. The background risk for major birth defects and miscarriage for the indicated population is unknown.

In animal reproduction studies, oral administration of lamivudine to pregnant rabbits during organogenesis resulted in embryolethality at systemic exposure (AUC) similar to the recommended clinical dose; however, no adverse development effects were observed with oral administration of lamivudine to pregnant rats during organogenesis at plasma concentrations (Cmax) 35 times the recommended clinical dose. Administration of oral zidovudine to female rats prior to mating and throughout gestation resulted in embryotoxicity at doses that produced systemic exposure (AUC) approximately 33 times higher than exposure at the recommended clinical dose. However, no embryotoxicity was observed after oral administration of zidovudine to pregnant rats during organogenesis at doses that produced systemic exposure (AUC) approximately 117 times higher than exposures at the recommended clinical dose. Administration of oral zidovudine to pregnant rabbits during organogenesis resulted in embryotoxicity at doses that produced systemic exposure (AUC) approximately 108 times higher than exposure at the recommended clinical dose. However, no embryotoxicity was observed at doses that produced systemic exposure (AUC) approximately 23 times higher than exposures at the recommended clinical dose.

Data

Human Data: Lamivudine: Based on prospective reports to the APR of over 11,000 exposures to lamivudine during pregnancy resulting in live births (including over 4,500 exposed in the first trimester), there was no difference between the overall risk of birth defects for lamivudine (2.9%) compared with the background birth defect rate of 2.7% in a U.S. reference population of the MACDP. The prevalence of birth defects in live births was 3.1% (95% CI: 2.6% to 3.7%) following first trimester exposure to lamivudine-containing regimens.

Lamivudine pharmacokinetics were studied in pregnant women during 2 clinical trials conducted in South Africa. The trial assessed pharmacokinetics in 16 women at 36 weeks gestation using 150 mg lamivudine twice daily with zidovudine, 10 women at 38 weeks gestation using 150 mg lamivudine twice daily with zidovudine, and 10 women at 38 weeks gestation using lamivudine 300 mg twice daily without other antiretrovirals. These trials were not designed or powered to provide efficacy information. Lamivudine concentrations were generally similar in maternal, neonatal, and umbilical cord serum samples. In a subset of subjects, amniotic fluid specimens were collected following natural rupture of membranes and confirmed that lamivudine crosses the placenta in humans. Based on limited data at delivery, median (range) amniotic fluid concentrations of lamivudine were 3.9 (1.2 to 12.8)–fold greater compared with paired maternal serum concentration (n = 8).

Zidovudine: Based on prospective reports to the APR of over 13,000 exposures to zidovudine during pregnancy resulting in live births (including over 4,000 exposed in the first trimester), there was no difference between the overall risk of birth defects for zidovudine (2.9%) compared with the background birth defect rate of 2.7% in a U.S. reference population of the MACDP. The prevalence of birth defects in live births was 3.2% (95% CI: 2.7% to 3.8%) following first trimester exposure to zidovudine-containing regimens.

A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial was conducted in HIV-1-infected pregnant women to determine the utility of zidovudine for the prevention of maternal-fetal HIV-1 transmission. Zidovudine treatment during pregnancy reduced the rate of maternal-fetal HIV-1 transmission from 24.9% for infants born to placebo-treated mothers to 7.8% for infants born to mothers treated with zidovudine. There were no differences in pregnancy-related adverse events between the treatment groups. Of the 363 neonates that were evaluated, congenital abnormalities occurred with similar frequency between neonates born to mothers who received zidovudine and neonates born to mothers who received placebo. The observed abnormalities included problems in embryogenesis (prior to 14 weeks) or were recognized on ultrasound before or immediately after initiation of trial drug.

Zidovudine has been shown to cross the placenta and concentrations in neonatal plasma at birth were essentially equal to those in maternal plasma at delivery.

Animal Data: Lamivudine: Lamivudine was administered orally to pregnant rats (at 90, 600, and 4,000 mg per kg per day) and rabbits (at 90, 300, and 1,000 mg per kg per day and at 15, 40, and 90 mg per kg per day) during organogenesis (on gestation Days 7 through 16 and 8 through 20, respectively). No evidence of fetal malformations due to lamivudine was observed in rats and rabbits at doses producing plasma concentrations (Cmax) approximately 35 times higher than human exposure at the recommended daily dose. Evidence of early embryolethality was seen in the rabbit at system exposures (AUC) similar to those observed in humans, but there was no indication of this effect in the rat at plasma concentrations (Cmax) 35 times higher than human exposure at the recommended daily dose. Studies in pregnant rats showed that lamivudine is transferred to the fetus through the placenta. In the pre-and postnatal development study in rats, lamivudine was administered orally at doses of 180, 900, and 4,000 mg per kg per day (from gestation Day 6 through postnatal Day 20). In the study, development of the offspring, including fertility and reproductive performance, was not affected by maternal administration of lamivudine.

Zidovudine: A study in pregnant rats (at 50, 150, or 450 mg per kg per day starting 26 days prior to mating through gestation to postnatal Day 21) showed increased fetal resorptions at doses that produced systemic exposures (AUC) approximately 33 times higher than exposure at the recommended daily human dose (300 mg twice daily). However, in an oral embryo-fetal development study in rats (at 125, 250, or 500 mg per kg per day on gestation Days 6 through 15), no fetal resorptions were observed at doses that produced systemic exposure (AUC) approximately 117 times higher than exposures at the recommended daily human dose. An oral embryo-fetal development study in rabbits (at 75, 150, or 500 mg per kg per day on gestation Days 6 through 18) showed increased fetal resorptions at the 500 mg per kg per day dose, which produced systemic exposures (AUC) approximately 108 times higher than exposure at the recommended daily human dose; however, no fetal resorptions were noted at doses up to 150 mg per kg per day, which produced systemic exposure (AUC) approximately 23 times higher than exposures at the recommended daily human dose. These oral embryo-fetal development studies in the rat and rabbit revealed no evidence of fetal malformations with zidovudine. In another developmental toxicity study, pregnant rats (dosed at 3,000 mg per kg per day from Days 6 through 15 of gestation) showed marked maternal toxicity and an increased incidence of fetal malformations at exposures greater than 300 times the recommended daily human dose based on AUC. However, there were no signs of fetal malformations at doses up to 600 mg per kg per day.

8.2 Lactation

PLLR conversion, as below:

Risk Summary

The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention recommend that HIV-1-infected mothers in the United States not breastfeed their infants to avoid risking postnatal transmission of HIV-1 infection. Lamivudine and zidovudine are present in human milk. There is no information on the effects of lamivudine or zidovudine on the breastfed infant or the effects of the drugs on milk production. Because of the potential for (1) HIV-1 transmission (in HIV-negative infants), (2)developing viral resistance (in HIV-positive infants), and (3) serious adverse reactions in a breastfed infant, instruct mothers not to breastfeed if they are receiving COMBIVIR.

17 PCI/PI/MG (Patient Counseling Information/Patient Information/Medication Guide)

PATIENT COUNSELING INFORMATION

Additions and/or revisions underlined:

Lactic Acidosis/Hepatomegaly with Steatosis

Advise patients that lactic acidosis and severe hepatomegaly with steatosis have been reported with use of nucleoside analogues and other antiretrovirals. Advise patients to stop taking COMBIVIR if they develop clinical symptoms suggestive of lactic acidosis or pronounced hepatotoxicity.

Patients with Hepatitis B or C Co-infection

Heatlhcare provider replaces physician.

Drug Interactions

Advise patients that other medications may interact with COMBIVIR and certain medications, including ganciclovir, interferon alfa, and ribavirin, may exacerbate the toxicity of zidovudine, a component of COMBIVIR.

Immune Reconstitution Syndrome

Advise patients to inform their healthcare provider immediately of any signs and symptoms of infection as inflammation from previous infection may occur soon after combination antiretroviral therapy, including when COMBIVIR is started.

Pregnancy Registry

Advise patients that there is a pregnancy exposure registry that monitors pregnancy outcomes in women exposed to COMBIVIR during pregnancy.

Lactation

Instruct women with HIV-1 infection not to breastfeed because HIV-1 can be passed to the baby in the breast milk.

Missed Dose

Instruct patients that if they miss a dose of COMBIVIR, to take it as soon as they remember. Advise patients not to double their next dose or take more than the prescribed dose.

Questions related to the drug data in these files should be directed to the Center for Drug Evaluation and Research, Division of Drug Information
druginfo@fda.hhs.gov.

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