Drug Safety-related Labeling Changes (SrLC)

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EPZICOM (NDA-021652)

(ABACAVIR SULFATE; LAMIVUDINE)

Safety-related Labeling Changes Approved by FDA Center for Drug Evaluation and Research (CDER)

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04/27/2018 (SUPPL-23)

Approved Drug Label (PDF)

5 Warnings and Precautions

5.3 Lactic Acidosis and Severe Hepatomegaly with Steatosis

(Newly Added Subsection)

Lactic acidosis and severe hepatomegaly with steatosis, including fatal cases, have been reported with the use of nucleoside analogues, including abacavir and lamivudine (components of EPZICOM). A majority of these cases have been in women. Female sex and obesity may be risk factors for the development of lactic acidosis and severe hepatomegaly with steatosis in patients treated with antiretroviral nucleoside analogues. See full prescribing information for ZIAGEN (abacavir) and EPIVIR (lamivudine). Treatment with EPZICOM should be suspended in any patient who develops clinical or laboratory findings suggestive of lactic acidosis or pronounced hepatotoxicity, which may include hepatomegaly and steatosis even in the absence of marked transaminase elevations.

5.6 Myocardial Infarction

(Additions and/or revisions are underlined)

Several prospective, observational, epidemiological studies have reported an association with the use of abacavir and the risk of myocardial infarction (MI). Meta-analyses of randomized, controlled clinical trials have observed no excess risk of MI in abacavir-treated subjects as compared with control subjects. To date, there is no established biological mechanism to explain the potential increase in risk. In totality, the available data from the observational studies and from controlled clinical trials show inconsistency; therefore, evidence for a causal relationship between abacavir treatment and the risk of MI is inconclusive.

7 Drug Interactions

7.1 Sorbitol

(Newly Added Subsection)

Coadministration of single doses of lamivudine and sorbitol resulted in a sorbitol dose-dependent reduction in lamivudine exposures. When possible, avoid use of sorbitol-containing medicines with lamivudine-containing medicines.

17 PCI/PI/MG (Patient Counseling Information/Patient Information/Medication Guide)

MEDICATION GUIDE EPZICOM (ep' zih com) (abacavir and lamivudine) tablets

(Extensive revisions; please refer to labeling)

03/20/2017 (SUPPL-22)

Approved Drug Label (PDF)

Boxed Warning

(Additions and/or revisions are underlined)

WARNING: HYPERSENSITIVITY REACTIONS, LACTIC ACIDOSIS AND SEVERE HEPATOMEGALY WITH STEATOSIS, and EXACERBATIONS OF HEPATITIS B

8 Use in Specific Populations

8.1 Pregnancy

(Additions and/or revisions are underlined)

Pregnancy Exposure Registry

Healthcare providers are encouraged to register patients by calling the Antiretroviral Pregnancy Registry (APR) at 1-800-258-4263.

 

Risk Summary

Available data from the APR show no difference in the overall risk of birth defects for abacavir or lamivudine compared with the background rate for birth defects of 2.7% in the Metropolitan Atlanta Congenital Defects Program (MACDP) reference population. The APR uses the MACDP as the U.S. reference population for birth defects in the general population. The MACDP evaluates women and infants from a limited geographic area and does not include outcomes for births that occurred at less than 20 weeks gestation. The rate of miscarriage is not reported in the APR. The estimated background rate of miscarriage in clinically recognized pregnancies in the U.S. general population is 15% to 20%. The background risk for major birth defects and miscarriage for the indicated population is unknown.

In animal reproduction studies, oral administration of abacavir to pregnant rats during organogenesis resulted in fetal malformations and other embryonic and fetal toxicities at exposures 35 times the human exposure (AUC) at the recommended clinical daily dose. However, no adverse developmental effects were observed following oral administration of abacavir to pregnant rabbits during organogenesis, at exposures approximately 9 times the human exposure (AUC) at the recommended clinical dose. Oral administration of lamivudine to pregnant rabbits during organogenesis resulted in embryolethality at systemic exposure (AUC) similar to the recommended clinical dose; however, no adverse development effects were observed with oral administration of lamivudine to pregnant rats during organogenesis at plasma concentrations (Cmax) 35 times the recommended clinical dose.

 

Data

Human Data: Abacavir: Based on prospective reports to the APR of over 2,000 exposures to abacavir during pregnancy resulting in live births (including over 1,000 exposed in the first trimester), there was no difference between the overall risk of birth defects for abacavir compared with the background birth defect rate of 2.7% in the U.S. reference population of the MACDP. The prevalence of defects in live births was 2.9% (95% CI: 2.0% to 4.1%) following first trimester exposure to abacavir-containing regimens and 2.7% (95% CI: 1.9% to 3.7%) following second/third trimester exposure to abacavir-containing regimens.

Abacavir has been shown to cross the placenta and concentrations in neonatal plasma at birth were essentially equal to those in maternal plasma at delivery.

 

Lamivudine: Based on prospective reports to the APR of over 11,000 exposures to lamivudine during pregnancy resulting in live births (including over 4,500 exposed in the first trimester), there was no difference between the overall risk of birth defects for lamivudine compared with the background birth defect rate of 2.7% in the U.S. reference population of the MACDP. The prevalence of birth defects in live births was 3.1% (95% CI: 2.6% to 3.6%) following first trimester exposure to lamivudine-containing regimens and 2.8% (95% CI: 2.5%,3.3%) following second/third trimester exposure to lamivudine-containing regimens.

 

Based on limited data at delivery, median (range) amniotic fluid concentrations of lamivudine were 3.9 (1.2 to 12.8)–fold greater compared with paired maternal serum concentration (n = 8).

 

Animal Data: Abacavir: Abacavir was administered orally to pregnant rats (at 100, 300, and 1,000 mg per kg per day) and rabbits (at 125, 350, or 700 mg per kg per day) during organogenesis (on gestation Days 6 through 17 and 6 through 20, respectively). Fetal malformations (increased incidences of fetal anasarca and skeletal malformations) or developmental toxicity (decreased fetal body weight and crown-rump length) were observed in rats at doses up to 1,000 mg per kg per day, resulting in exposures approximately 35 times the human exposure (AUC) at the recommended daily dose. No developmental effects were observed in rats at 100 mg per kg per day, resulting in exposures (AUC) 3.5 times the human exposure at the recommended daily dose. In a fertility and early embryo-fetal development study conducted in rats (at 60, 160, or 500 mg per kg per day), embryonic and fetal toxicities (increased resorptions, decreased fetal body weights) or toxicities to the offspring (increased incidence of stillbirth and lower body weights) occurred at doses up to 500 mg per kg per day. No developmental effects were observed in rats at 60 mg per kg per day, resulting in exposures (AUC) approximately 4 times the human exposure at the recommended daily dose. Studies in pregnant rats showed that abacavir is transferred to the fetus through the placenta. In pregnant rabbits, no developmental toxicities and no increases in fetal malformations occurred at up to the highest dose evaluated, resulting in exposures (AUC) approximately 9 times the human exposure at the recommended dose.

 

Lamivudine: Lamivudine was administered orally to pregnant rats (at 90, 600, and 4,000 mg per kg per day) and rabbits (at 90, 300 and 1,000 mg per kg per day and at 15, 40, and 90 mg per kg per day) during organogenesis (on gestation Days 7 through 16 [rat] and 8 through 20 [rabbit]). No evidence of fetal malformations due to lamivudine was observed in rats and rabbits at doses producing plasma concentrations (Cmax) approximately 35 times higher than human exposure at the recommended daily dose. Evidence of early embryolethality was seen in the rabbit at systemic exposures (AUC) similar to those observed in humans, but there was no indication of this effect in the rat at plasma concentrations (Cmax) 35 times higher than human exposure at the recommended daily dose. Studies in pregnant rats showed that lamivudine is transferred to the fetus through the placenta. In the pre-and postnatal development study in rats, lamivudine was administered orally at doses of 180, 900, and 4,000 mg per kg per day from gestation Day 6 through postnatal Day 20). In the study, development of the offspring, including fertility and reproductive performance, were not affected by the maternal administration of lamivudine.

8.2 Lactation

(Additions and/or revisions are underlined)

Risk Summary

Abacavir and lamivudine are present in human milk. There is no information on the effects of abacavir and lamivudine on the breastfed infant or the effects of the drug on milk production. Because of the potential for (1) HIV-1 transmission (in HIV-negative infants), (2) developing viral resistance (in HIV-positive infants), and (3) serious adverse reactions in a breastfed infant, instruct mothers not to breastfeed if they are receiving EPZICOM.

17 PCI/PI/MG (Patient Counseling Information/Patient Information/Medication Guide)

17 PATIENT COUNSELING INFORMATION

(Additions and/or revisions are underlined)

Hypersensitivity Reactions

Inform patients:

  • that if they have a hypersensitivity reaction, they should dispose of any unused EPZICOM to avoid restarting abacavir.

 

Lactic Acidosis/Hepatomegaly with Steatosis

Advise patients that lactic acidosis and severe hepatomegaly with steatosis have been reported with use of nucleoside analogues and other antiretrovirals. Advise patients to stop taking EPZICOM if they develop clinical symptoms suggestive of lactic acidosis or pronounced hepatotoxicity.

 

Immune Reconstitution Syndrome

Advise patients to inform their healthcare provider immediately of any signs and symptoms of infection as inflammation from previous infection may occur soon after combination antiretroviral therapy, including when EPZICOM is started.

 

Pregnancy Registry

Advise patients that there is a pregnancy exposure registry that monitors pregnancy outcomes in women exposed to EPZICOM during pregnancy.


Lactation

Instruct women with HIV-1 infection not to breastfeed because HIV-1 can be passed to the baby in the breast milk

 

Missed Dose

Instruct patients that if they miss a dose of EPZICOM, to take it as soon as they remember. Advise patients not to double their next dose or take more than the prescribed dose.

MEDICATION GUIDE

(Additions and/or revisions are underlined)

What is the most important information I should know about EPZICOM? EPZICOM can cause serious side effects, including:

  • Serious allergic reactions (hypersensitivity reaction) that can cause death have happened with EPZICOM and other abacavir-containing products…

    • If you have an allergic reaction, dispose of any unused EPZICOM. Ask your pharmacist how to properly dispose of medicines.

WARNING CARD

(Additions and/or revisions are underlined)

If you have an allergic reaction, dispose of any unused EPZICOM. Ask your pharmacist how to properly dispose of medicines

Questions related to the drug data in these files should be directed to the Center for Drug Evaluation and Research, Division of Drug Information
druginfo@fda.hhs.gov.

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