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CFR - Code of Federal Regulations Title 21

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[Code of Federal Regulations]
[Title 21, Volume 1]
[Revised as of April 1, 2017]
[CITE: 21CFR1]





TITLE 21--FOOD AND DRUGS
CHAPTER I--FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION
DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES
SUBCHAPTER A--GENERAL
 
PART 1GENERAL ENFORCEMENT REGULATIONS
 

Subpart L--Foreign Supplier Verification Programs for Food Importers

Sec. 1.500 What definitions apply to this subpart?

The following definitions apply to words and phrases as they are used in this subpart. Other definitions of these terms may apply when they are used in other subparts of this part.

Adequate means that which is needed to accomplish the intended purpose in keeping with good public health practice.

Audit means the systematic, independent, and documented examination (through observation, investigation, discussions with employees of the audited entity, records review, and, as appropriate, sampling and laboratory analysis) to assess an audited entity's food safety processes and procedures.

Dietary supplement has the meaning given in section 201(ff) of the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act.

Dietary supplement component means any substance intended for use in the manufacture of a dietary supplement, including those that may not appear in the finished batch of the dietary supplement. Dietary supplement components include dietary ingredients (as described in section 201(ff) of the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act) and other ingredients.

Environmental pathogen means a pathogen capable of surviving and persisting within the manufacturing, processing, packing, or holding environment such that food may be contaminated and may result in foodborne illness if that food is consumed without treatment to significantly minimize the environmental pathogen. Examples of environmental pathogens for the purposes of this part include Listeria monocytogenes and Salmonella spp. but do not include the spores of pathogenic sporeforming bacteria.

Facility means a domestic facility or a foreign facility that is required to register under section 415 of the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act, in accordance with the requirements of subpart H of this part.

Farm means farm as defined in 1.227.

Farm mixed-type facility means an establishment that is a farm but that also conducts activities outside the farm definition that require the establishment to be registered under section 415 of the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act.

Food has the meaning given in section 201(f) of the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act, except that food does not include pesticides (as defined in 7 U.S.C. 136(u)).

Food allergen means a major food allergen as defined in section 201(qq) of the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act.

Foreign supplier means, for an article of food, the establishment that manufactures/processes the food, raises the animal, or grows the food that is exported to the United States without further manufacturing/processing by another establishment, except for further manufacturing/processing that consists solely of the addition of labeling or any similar activity of a de minimis nature.

Good compliance standing with a foreign food safety authority means that the foreign supplier--

(1) Appears on the current version of a list, issued by the food safety authority of the country in which the foreign supplier is located and which has regulatory oversight of the supplier, of food producers that are in good compliance standing with the food safety authority; or

(2) Has otherwise been designated by such food safety authority as being in good compliance standing.

Harvesting applies to applies to farms and farm mixed-type facilities and means activities that are traditionally performed on farms for the purpose of removing raw agricultural commodities from the place they were grown or raised and preparing them for use as food. Harvesting is limited to activities performed on raw agricultural commodities, or on processed foods created by drying/dehydrating a raw agricultural commodity without additional manufacturing/processing, on a farm. Harvesting does not include activities that transform a raw agricultural commodity into a processed food as defined in section 201(gg) of the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act. Examples of harvesting include cutting (or otherwise separating) the edible portion of the raw agricultural commodity from the crop plant and removing or trimming part of the raw agricultural commodity (e.g., foliage, husks, roots, or stems). Examples of harvesting also include cooling, field coring, filtering, gathering, hulling, shelling, sifting, threshing, trimming of outer leaves of, and washing raw agricultural commodities grown on a farm.

Hazard means any biological, chemical (including radiological), or physical agent that is reasonably likely to cause illness or injury.

Hazard requiring a control means a known or reasonably foreseeable hazard for which a person knowledgeable about the safe manufacturing, processing, packing, or holding of food would, based on the outcome of a hazard analysis (which includes an assessment of the probability that the hazard will occur in the absence of controls or measures and the severity of the illness or injury if the hazard were to occur), establish one or more controls or measures to significantly minimize or prevent the hazard in a food and components to manage those controls or measures (such as monitoring, corrections or corrective actions, verification, and records) as appropriate to the food, the facility, and the nature of the control or measure and its role in the facility's food safety system.

Holding means storage of food and also includes activities performed incidental to storage of a food (e.g., activities performed for the safe or effective storage of that food, such as fumigating food during storage, and drying/dehydrating raw agricultural commodities when the drying/dehydrating does not create a distinct commodity (such as drying/dehydrating hay or alfalfa)). Holding also includes activities performed as a practical necessity for the distribution of that food (such as blending of the same raw agricultural commodity and breaking down pallets), but does not include activities that transform a raw agricultural commodity into a processed food as defined in section 201(gg) of the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act. Holding facilities could include warehouses, cold storage facilities, storage silos, grain elevators, and liquid storage tanks.

Importer means the U.S. owner or consignee of an article of food that is being offered for import into the United States. If there is no U.S. owner or consignee of an article of food at the time of U.S. entry, the importer is the U.S. agent or representative of the foreign owner or consignee at the time of entry, as confirmed in a signed statement of consent to serve as the importer under this subpart.

Known or reasonably foreseeable hazard means a biological, chemical (including radiological), or physical hazard that is known to be, or has the potential to be, associated with a food or the facility in which it is manufactured/processed.

Lot means the food produced during a period of time and identified by an establishment's specific code.

Manufacturing/processing means making food from one or more ingredients, or synthesizing, preparing, treating, modifying, or manipulating food, including food crops or ingredients. Examples of manufacturing/processing activities include: Baking, boiling, bottling, canning, cooking, cooling, cutting, distilling, drying/dehydrating raw agricultural commodities to create a distinct commodity (such as drying/dehydrating grapes to produce raisins), evaporating, eviscerating, extracting juice, extruding (of animal food), formulating, freezing, grinding, homogenizing, irradiating, labeling, milling, mixing, packaging (including modified atmosphere packaging), pasteurizing, peeling, pelleting (of animal food), rendering, treating to manipulate ripening, trimming, washing, or waxing. For farms and farm mixed-type facilities, manufacturing/processing does not include activities that are part of harvesting, packing, or holding.

Microorganisms means yeasts, molds, bacteria, viruses, protozoa, and microscopic parasites and includes species that are pathogens.

Packing means placing food into a container other than packaging the food and also includes re-packing and activities performed incidental to packing or re-packing a food (e.g., activities performed for the safe or effective packing or re-packing of that food (such as sorting, culling, grading, and weighing or conveying incidental to packing or re-packing)), but does not include activities that transform a raw agricultural commodity into a processed food as defined in section 201(gg) of the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act.

Pathogen means a microorganism of public health significance.

Qualified auditor means a person who is a qualified individual as defined in this section and has technical expertise obtained through education, training, or experience (or a combination thereof) necessary to perform the auditing function as required by 1.506(e)(1)(i) or 1.511(c)(5)(i)(A). Examples of potential qualified auditors include:

(1) A government employee, including a foreign government employee; and

(2) An audit agent of a certification body that is accredited in accordance with subpart M of this part.

Qualified individual means a person who has the education, training, or experience (or a combination thereof) necessary to perform an activity required under this subpart, and can read and understand the language of any records that the person must review in performing this activity. A qualified individual may be, but is not required to be, an employee of the importer. A government employee, including a foreign government employee, may be a qualified individual.

Raw agricultural commodity has the meaning given in section 201(r) of the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act.

Ready-to-eat food (RTE food) means any food that is normally eaten in its raw state or any food, including a processed food, for which it is reasonably foreseeable that the food will be eaten without further processing that would significantly minimize biological hazards.

Receiving facility means a facility that is subject to subparts C and G of part 117 of this chapter, or subparts C and E of part 507 of this chapter, and that manufactures/processes a raw material or other ingredient that it receives from a supplier.

U.S. owner or consignee means the person in the United States who, at the time of U.S. entry, either owns the food, has purchased the food, or has agreed in writing to purchase the food.

Very small importer means:

(1) With respect to the importation of human food, an importer (including any subsidiaries and affiliates) averaging less than $1 million per year, adjusted for inflation, during the 3-year period preceding the applicable calendar year, in sales of human food combined with the U.S. market value of human food imported, manufactured, processed, packed, or held without sale (e.g., imported for a fee); and

(2) With respect to the importation of animal food, an importer (including any subsidiaries and affiliates) averaging less than $2.5 million per year, adjusted for inflation, during the 3-year period preceding the applicable calendar year, in sales of animal food combined with the U.S. market value of animal food imported, manufactured, processed, packed, or held without sale (e.g., imported for a fee).

You means a person who is subject to some or all of the requirements in this subpart.

[80 FR 74340, Nov. 27, 2015, as amended at 81 FR 25327, Apr. 28, 2016]

Sec. 1.501 To what foods do the requirements in this subpart apply?

(a) General. Except as specified otherwise in this section, the requirements in this subpart apply to all food imported or offered for import into the United States and to the importers of such food.

(b) Exemptions for juice and seafood --(1) Importers of certain juice and seafood products. This subpart does not apply with respect to juice, fish, and fishery products that are imported from a foreign supplier that is required to comply with, and is in compliance with, the requirements in part 120 or part 123 of this chapter. If you import juice or fish and fishery products that are subject to part 120 or part 123, respectively, you must comply with the requirements applicable to importers of those products under 120.14 or 123.12 of this chapter, respectively.

(2) Certain importers of juice or seafood raw materials or other ingredients subject to part 120 or part 123 of this chapter. This subpart does not apply with respect to any raw materials or other ingredients that you import and use in manufacturing or processing juice subject to part 120 or fish and fishery products subject to part 123, provided that you are in compliance with the requirements in part 120 or part 123 with respect to the juice or fish or fishery product that you manufacture or process from the imported raw materials or other ingredients.

(c) Exemption for food imported for research or evaluation. This subpart does not apply to food that is imported for research or evaluation use, provided that such food:

(1) Is not intended for retail sale and is not sold or distributed to the public;

(2) Is labeled with the statement "Food for research or evaluation use";

(3) Is imported in a small quantity that is consistent with a research, analysis, or quality assurance purpose, the food is used only for this purpose, and any unused quantity is properly disposed of; and

(4) Is accompanied, when filing entry with U.S. Customs and Border Protection, by an electronic declaration that the food will be used for research or evaluation purposes and will not be sold or distributed to the public.

(d) Exemption for food imported for personal consumption. This subpart does not apply to food that is imported for personal consumption, provided that such food is not intended for retail sale and is not sold or distributed to the public. Food is imported for personal consumption only if it is purchased or otherwise acquired by a person in a small quantity that is consistent with a non-commercial purpose and is not sold or distributed to the public.

(e) Exemption for alcoholic beverages. (1) This subpart does not apply with respect to alcoholic beverages that are imported from a foreign supplier that is a facility that meets the following two conditions:

(i) Under the Federal Alcohol Administration Act (27 U.S.C. 201 et seq. ) or chapter 51 of subtitle E of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986 (26 U.S.C. 5001 et seq. ), the facility is a foreign facility of a type that, if it were a domestic facility, would require obtaining a permit from, registering with, or obtaining approval of a notice or application from the Secretary of the Treasury as a condition of doing business in the United States; and

(ii) Under section 415 of the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act, the facility is required to register as a facility because it is engaged in manufacturing/processing one or more alcoholic beverages.

(2) This subpart does not apply with respect to food that is not an alcoholic beverage that is imported from a foreign supplier described in paragraph (e)(1) of this section, provided such food:

(i) Is in prepackaged form that prevents any direct human contact with such food; and

(ii) Constitutes not more than 5 percent of the overall sales of the facility, as determined by the Secretary of the Treasury.

(3) This subpart does not apply with respect to raw materials and other ingredients that are imported for use in alcoholic beverages provided that:

(i) The imported raw materials and other ingredients are used in the manufacturing/processing, packing, or holding of alcoholic beverages;

(ii) Such manufacturing/processing, packing, or holding is performed by the importer;

(iii) The importer is required to register under section 415 of the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act; and

(iv) The importer is exempt from the regulations in part 117 of this chapter in accordance with 117.5(i) of this chapter.

(f) Inapplicability to food that is transshipped or imported for processing and export. This subpart does not apply to food:

(1) That is transshipped through the United States to another country and is not sold or distributed to the public in the United States; or

(2) That is imported for processing and future export and that is not sold or distributed to the public in the United States.

(g) Inapplicability to U.S. food returned. This subpart does not apply to food that is manufactured/processed, raised, or grown in the United States, exported, and returned to the United States without further manufacturing/processing in a foreign country.

(h) Inapplicability to certain meat, poultry, and egg products. This subpart does not apply with respect to:

(1) Meat food products that at the time of importation are subject to the requirements of the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) under the Federal Meat Inspection Act (21 U.S.C. 601 et seq. );

(2) Poultry products that at the time of importation are subject to the requirements of the USDA under the Poultry Products Inspection Act (21 U.S.C. 451 et seq. ); and

(3) Egg products that at the time of importation are subject to the requirements of the USDA under the Egg Products Inspection Act (21 U.S.C. 1031 et seq. ).

[80 FR 74340, Nov. 27, 2015, as amended at 81 FR 25327, Apr. 28, 2016]

Sec. 1.502 What foreign supplier verification program (FSVP) must I have?

(a) General. Except as specified in paragraph (b) of this section, for each food you import, you must develop, maintain, and follow an FSVP that provides adequate assurances that your foreign supplier is producing the food in compliance with processes and procedures that provide at least the same level of public health protection as those required under section 418 (regarding hazard analysis and risk-based preventive controls for certain foods) or 419 (regarding standards for produce safety), if either is applicable, and the implementing regulations, and is producing the food in compliance with sections 402 (regarding adulteration) and 403(w) (if applicable) (regarding misbranding with respect to labeling for the presence of major food allergens) of the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act.

(b) Low-acid canned foods --(1) Importers of low-acid canned foods not subject to further manufacturing or processing. With respect to those microbiological hazards that are controlled by part 113 of this chapter, if you import a thermally processed low-acid food packaged in a hermetically sealed container (low-acid canned food), you must verify and document that the food was produced in accordance with part 113. With respect to all matters that are not controlled by part 113, you must have an FSVP as specified in paragraph (a) of this section.

(2) Certain importers of raw materials or other ingredients subject to part 113 of this chapter. With respect to microbiological hazards that are controlled by part 113, you are not required to comply with the requirements of this subpart for raw materials or other ingredients that you import and use in the manufacturing or processing of low-acid canned food provided that you are in compliance with part 113 with respect to the low-acid canned food that you manufacture or process from the imported raw materials or other ingredients. With respect to all hazards other than microbiological hazards that are controlled by part 113, you must have an FSVP as specified in paragraph (a) of this section for the imported raw materials and other ingredients that you use in the manufacture or processing of low-acid canned foods.

(c) Importers subject to section 418 of the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act. You are deemed to be in compliance with the requirements of this subpart for a food you import, except for the requirements in 1.509, if you are a receiving facility as defined in 117.3 or 507.3 of this chapter and you are in compliance with the following requirements of part 117 or part 507 of this chapter, as applicable:

(1) You implement preventive controls for the hazards in the food in accordance with 117.135 or 507.34 of this chapter;

(2) You are not required to implement a preventive control under 117.136 or 507.36 of this chapter with respect to the food; or

(3) You have established and implemented a risk-based supply-chain program in compliance with subpart G of part 117 or subpart E of part 507 of this chapter with respect to the food.

Sec. 1.503 Who must develop my FSVP and perform FSVP activities?

(a) Qualified individual. A qualified individual must develop your FSVP and perform each of the activities required under this subpart. A qualified individual must have the education, training, or experience (or a combination thereof) necessary to perform their assigned activities and must be able to read and understand the language of any records that must be reviewed in performing an activity.

(b) Qualified auditor. A qualified auditor must conduct any audit conducted in accordance with 1.506(e)(1)(i) or 1.511(c)(5)(i)(A). A qualified auditor must have technical expertise obtained through education, training, or experience (or a combination thereof) necessary to perform the auditing function.

Sec. 1.504 What hazard analysis must I conduct?

(a) Requirement for a hazard analysis. Except as specified in paragraph (d) of this section, you must conduct a hazard analysis to identify and evaluate, based on experience, illness data, scientific reports, and other information, known or reasonably foreseeable hazards for each type of food you import to determine whether there are any hazards requiring a control. Your hazard analysis must be written regardless of its outcome.

(b) Hazard identification. (1) Your analysis of the known or reasonably foreseeable hazards in each food must include the following types of hazards:

(i) Biological hazards, including microbiological hazards such as parasites, environmental pathogens, and other pathogens;

(ii) Chemical hazards, including radiological hazards, pesticide and drug residues, natural toxins, decomposition, unapproved food or color additives, food allergens, and (in animal food) nutrient deficiencies or toxicities; and

(iii) Physical hazards (such as stones, glass, and metal fragments).

(2) Your analysis must include known or reasonably foreseeable hazards that may be present in a food for any of the following reasons:

(i) The hazard occurs naturally;

(ii) The hazard may be unintentionally introduced; or

(iii) The hazard may be intentionally introduced for purposes of economic gain.

(c) Hazard evaluation. (1) Your hazard analysis must include an evaluation of the hazards identified in paragraph (b) of this section to assess the probability that the hazard will occur in the absence of controls and the severity of the illness or injury if the hazard were to occur.

(2) The hazard evaluation required by paragraph (c)(1) of this section must include an evaluation of environmental pathogens whenever a ready-to-eat food is exposed to the environment before packaging and the packaged food does not receive a treatment or otherwise include a control or measure (such as a formulation lethal to the pathogen) that would significantly minimize the pathogen.

(3) Your hazard evaluation must consider the effect of the following on the safety of the finished food for the intended consumer:

(i) The formulation of the food;

(ii) The condition, function, and design of the establishment and equipment of a typical entity that manufactures/processes, grows, harvests, or raises this type of food;

(iii) Raw materials and other ingredients;

(iv) Transportation practices;

(v) Harvesting, raising, manufacturing, processing, and packing procedures;

(vi) Packaging and labeling activities;

(vii) Storage and distribution;

(viii) Intended or reasonably foreseeable use;

(ix) Sanitation, including employee hygiene; and

(x) Any other relevant factors, such as the temporal (e.g., weather-related) nature of some hazards (e.g., levels of natural toxins).

(d) Review of another entity's hazard analysis. If another entity (including your foreign supplier) has, using a qualified individual, analyzed the known or reasonably foreseeable hazards for the food to determine whether there are any hazards requiring a control, you may meet your requirement to determine whether there are any hazards requiring a control in a food by reviewing and assessing the hazard analysis conducted by that entity. You must document your review and assessment of that hazard analysis, including documenting that the hazard analysis was conducted by a qualified individual.

(e) Hazards in raw agricultural commodities that are fruits or vegetables. If you are importing a raw agricultural commodity that is a fruit or vegetable that is "covered produce" as defined in 112.3 of this chapter, you are not required to determine whether there are any biological hazards requiring a control in such food because the biological hazards in such fruits or vegetables require a control and compliance with the requirements in part 112 of this chapter significantly minimizes or prevents the biological hazards. However, you must determine whether there are any other types of hazards requiring a control in such food.

(f) No hazards requiring a control. If you evaluate the known and reasonably foreseeable hazards in a food and determine that there are no hazards requiring a control, you are not required to conduct an evaluation for foreign supplier approval and verification under 1.505 and you are not required to conduct foreign supplier verification activities under 1.506. This paragraph (f) does not apply if the food is a raw agricultural commodity that is a fruit or vegetable that is "covered produce" as defined in 112.3 of this chapter.

Sec. 1.505 What evaluation for foreign supplier approval and verification must I conduct?

(a) Evaluation of a foreign supplier's performance and the risk posed by a food. (1) Except as specified in paragraphs (d) and (e) of this section, in approving your foreign suppliers and determining the appropriate supplier verification activities that must be conducted for a foreign supplier of a type of food you import, you must consider the following:

(i) The hazard analysis of the food conducted in accordance with 1.504, including the nature of the hazard requiring a control.

(ii) The entity or entities that will be significantly minimizing or preventing the hazards requiring a control or verifying that such hazards have been significantly minimized or prevented, such as the foreign supplier, the foreign supplier's raw material or other ingredient supplier, or another entity in your supply chain.

(iii) Foreign supplier performance, including:

(A) The foreign supplier's procedures, processes, and practices related to the safety of the food;

(B) Applicable FDA food safety regulations and information relevant to the foreign supplier's compliance with those regulations, including whether the foreign supplier is the subject of an FDA warning letter, import alert, or other FDA compliance action related to food safety (or, when applicable, the relevant laws and regulations of a country whose food safety system FDA has officially recognized as comparable or determined to be equivalent to that of the United States, and information relevant to the supplier's compliance with those laws and regulations); and

(C) The foreign supplier's food safety history, including available information about results from testing foods for hazards, audit results relating to the safety of the food, and responsiveness of the foreign supplier in correcting problems.

(iv) Any other factors as appropriate and necessary, such as storage and transportation practices.

(2) You must document the evaluation you conduct under paragraph (a)(1) of this section.

(b) Approval of foreign suppliers. You must approve your foreign suppliers on the basis of the evaluation that you conducted under paragraph (a) of this section or that you review and assess under paragraph (d) of this section, and document your approval.

(c) Reevaluation of a foreign supplier's performance and the risk posed by a food. (1) Except as specified in paragraph (d) of this section, you must promptly reevaluate the concerns associated with the factors in paragraph (a)(1) of this section when you become aware of new information about these factors, and the reevaluation must be documented. If you determine that the concerns associated with importing a food from a foreign supplier have changed, you must promptly determine (and document) whether it is appropriate to continue to import the food from the foreign supplier and whether the supplier verification activities conducted under 1.506 or 1.511(c) need to be changed.

(2) If at the end of any 3-year period you have not reevaluated the concerns associated with the factors in paragraph (a)(1) of this section in accordance with paragraph (c)(1) of this section, you must reevaluate those concerns and take other appropriate actions, if necessary, in accordance with paragraph (c)(1). You must document your reevaluation and any subsequent actions you take in accordance with paragraph (c)(1).

(d) Review of another entity's evaluation or reevaluation of a foreign supplier's performance and the risk posed by a food. If an entity other than the foreign supplier has, using a qualified individual, performed the evaluation described in paragraph (a) of this section or the reevaluation described in paragraph (c) of this section, you may meet the requirements of the applicable paragraph by reviewing and assessing the evaluation or reevaluation conducted by that entity. You must document your review and assessment, including documenting that the evaluation or reevaluation was conducted by a qualified individual.

(e) Inapplicability to certain circumstances. You are not required to conduct an evaluation under this section or to conduct foreign supplier verification activities under 1.506 if one of the circumstances described in 1.507 applies to your importation of a food and you are in compliance with that section.

Sec. 1.506 What foreign supplier verification and related activities must I conduct?

(a) Use of approved foreign suppliers. (1) You must establish and follow written procedures to ensure that you import foods only from foreign suppliers you have approved based on the evaluation conducted under 1.505 (or, when necessary and appropriate, on a temporary basis from unapproved foreign suppliers whose foods you subject to adequate verification activities before importing the food). You must document your use of these procedures.

(2) You may rely on an entity other than your foreign supplier to establish the procedures and perform and document the activities required under paragraph (a)(1) of this section provided that you review and assess that entity's documentation of the procedures and activities, and you document your review and assessment.

(b) Foreign supplier verification procedures. You must establish and follow adequate written procedures for ensuring that appropriate foreign supplier verification activities are conducted with respect to the foods you import.

(c) Requirement of supplier verification. The foreign supplier verification activities must provide assurance that the hazards requiring a control in the food you import have been significantly minimized or prevented.

(d) Determination of appropriate foreign supplier verification activities --(1)(i) General. Except as provided in paragraphs (d)(2) and (3) of this section, before importing a food from a foreign supplier, you must determine and document which verification activity or activities listed in paragraphs (d)(1)(ii)(A) through (D) of this section, as well as the frequency with which the activity or activities must be conducted, are needed to provide adequate assurances that the food you obtain from the foreign supplier is produced in accordance with paragraph (c) of this section. Verification activities must address the entity or entities that are significantly minimizing or preventing the hazards or verifying that the hazards have been significantly minimized or prevented (e.g., when an entity other than the grower of produce subject to part 112 of this chapter harvests or packs the produce and significantly minimizes or prevents the hazard or verifies that the hazard has been significantly minimized or prevented, or when the foreign supplier's raw material supplier significantly minimizes or prevents a hazard). The determination of appropriate supplier verification activities must be based on the evaluation of the food and foreign supplier conducted under 1.505.

(ii) Appropriate verification activities. The following are appropriate supplier verification activities:

(A) Onsite audits as specified in paragraph (e)(1)(i) of this section;

(B) Sampling and testing of a food as specified in paragraph (e)(1)(ii) of this section;

(C) Review of the foreign supplier's relevant food safety records as specified in paragraph (e)(1)(iii) of this section; and

(D) Other appropriate supplier verification activities as specified in paragraph (e)(1)(iv) of this section.

(2) Verification activities for certain serious hazards. When a hazard in a food will be controlled by the foreign supplier and is one for which there is a reasonable probability that exposure to the hazard will result in serious adverse health consequences or death to humans or animals, you must conduct or obtain documentation of an onsite audit of the foreign supplier before initially importing the food and at least annually thereafter, unless you make an adequate written determination that, instead of such initial and annual onsite auditing, other supplier verification activities listed in paragraph (d)(1)(ii) of this section and/or less frequent onsite auditing are appropriate to provide adequate assurances that the foreign supplier is producing the food in accordance with paragraph (c) of this section, based on the determination made under 1.505.

(3) Reliance on a determination by another entity. You may rely on a determination of appropriate foreign supplier verification activities in accordance with paragraph (d)(1) or (2) of this section made by an entity other than the foreign supplier if you review and assess whether the entity's determination regarding appropriate activities (including the frequency with which such activities must be conducted) is appropriate. You must document your review and assessment, including documenting that the determination of appropriate verification activities was made by a qualified individual.

(e) Performance of foreign supplier verification activities --(1) Verification activities. Except as provided in paragraph (e)(2) of this section, based on the determination made in accordance with paragraph (d) of this section, you must conduct (and document) or obtain documentation of one or more of the supplier verification activities listed in paragraphs (e)(1)(i) through (iv) of this section for each foreign supplier before importing the food and periodically thereafter.

(i) Onsite audit of the foreign supplier. (A) An onsite audit of a foreign supplier must be performed by a qualified auditor.

(B) If the food is subject to one or more FDA food safety regulations, an onsite audit of the foreign supplier must consider such regulations and include a review of the supplier's written food safety plan, if any, and its implementation, for the hazard being controlled (or, when applicable, an onsite audit may consider relevant laws and regulations of a country whose food safety system FDA has officially recognized as comparable or determined to be equivalent to that of the United States).

(C) If the onsite audit is conducted solely to meet the requirements of paragraph (e) of this section by an audit agent of a certification body that is accredited in accordance with subpart M of this part, the audit is not subject to the requirements in that subpart.

(D) You must retain documentation of each onsite audit, including the audit procedures, the dates the audit was conducted, the conclusions of the audit, any corrective actions taken in response to significant deficiencies identified during the audit, and documentation that the audit was conducted by a qualified auditor.

(E) The following inspection results may be substituted for an onsite audit, provided that the inspection was conducted within 1 year of the date by which the onsite audit would have been required to be conducted:

(1 ) The written results of an appropriate inspection of the foreign supplier for compliance with applicable FDA food safety regulations conducted by FDA, representatives of other Federal Agencies (such as the USDA), or representatives of State, local, tribal, or territorial agencies; or

(2 ) The written results of an inspection of the foreign supplier by the food safety authority of a country whose food safety system FDA has officially recognized as comparable or determined to be equivalent to that of the United States, provided that the food that is the subject of the onsite audit is within the scope of the official recognition or equivalence determination, and the foreign supplier is in, and under the regulatory oversight of, such country.

(ii) Sampling and testing of the food. You must retain documentation of each sampling and testing of a food, including identification of the food tested (including lot number, as appropriate), the number of samples tested, the test(s) conducted (including the analytical method(s) used), the date(s) on which the test(s) were conducted and the date of the report of the testing, the results of the testing, any corrective actions taken in response to detection of hazards, information identifying the laboratory conducting the testing, and documentation that the testing was conducted by a qualified individual.

(iii) Review of the foreign supplier's relevant food safety records. You must retain documentation of each record review, including the date(s) of review, the general nature of the records reviewed, the conclusions of the review, any corrective actions taken in response to significant deficiencies identified during the review, and documentation that the review was conducted by a qualified individual.

(iv) Other appropriate activity. (A) You may conduct (and document) or obtain documentation of other supplier verification activities that are appropriate based on foreign supplier performance and the risk associated with the food.

(B) You must retain documentation of each activity conducted in accordance with paragraph (e)(1)(iv) of this section, including a description of the activity, the date on which it was conducted, the findings or results of the activity, any corrective actions taken in response to significant deficiencies identified, and documentation that the activity was conducted by a qualified individual.

(2) Reliance upon performance of activities by other entities. (i) Except as specified in paragraph (e)(2)(ii) of this section, you may rely on supplier verification activities conducted in accordance with paragraph (e)(1) of this section by another entity provided that you review and assess the results of these activities in accordance with paragraph (e)(3) of this section.

(ii) You may not rely on the foreign supplier itself or employees of the foreign supplier to perform supplier verification activities, except with respect to sampling and testing of food in accordance with paragraph (e)(1)(ii) of this section.

(3) Review of results of verification activities. You must promptly review and assess the results of the verification activities that you conduct or obtain documentation of under paragraph (e)(1) of this section, or that are conducted by other entities in accordance with paragraph (e)(2) of this section. You must document your review and assessment of the results of verification activities. If the results do not provide adequate assurances that the hazards requiring a control in the food you obtain from the foreign supplier have been significantly minimized or prevented, you must take appropriate action in accordance with 1.508(a). You are not required to retain documentation of supplier verification activities conducted by other entities, provided that you can obtain the documentation and make it available to FDA in accordance with 1.510(b).

(4) Independence of qualified individuals conducting verification activities. There must not be any financial conflicts of interests that influence the results of the verification activities set forth in paragraph (e)(1) of this section, and payment must not be related to the results of the activity.

Sec. 1.507 What requirements apply when I import a food that cannot be consumed without the hazards being controlled or for which the hazards are controlled after importation?

(a) Circumstances. You are not required to conduct an evaluation of a food and foreign supplier under 1.505 or supplier verification activities under 1.506 when you identify a hazard requiring a control (identified hazard) in a food and any of the following circumstances apply:

(1) You determine and document that the type of food (e.g., raw agricultural commodities such as cocoa beans and coffee beans) could not be consumed without application of an appropriate control;

(2) You rely on your customer who is subject to the requirements for hazard analysis and risk-based preventive controls in subpart C of part 117 or subpart C of part 507 of this chapter to ensure that the identified hazard will be significantly minimized or prevented and you:

(i) Disclose in documents accompanying the food, in accordance with the practice of the trade, that the food is "not processed to control [identified hazard]"; and

(ii) Annually obtain from your customer written assurance, subject to the requirements of paragraph (c) of this section, that the customer has established and is following procedures (identified in the written assurance) that will significantly minimize or prevent the identified hazard;

(3) You rely on your customer who is not subject to the requirements for hazard analysis and risk-based preventive controls in subpart C of part 117 or subpart C of part 507 of this chapter to provide assurance it is manufacturing, processing, or preparing the food in accordance with the applicable food safety requirements and you:

(i) Disclose in documents accompanying the food, in accordance with the practice of the trade, that the food is "not processed to control [identified hazard]"; and

(ii) Annually obtain from your customer written assurance that it is manufacturing, processing, or preparing the food in accordance with applicable food safety requirements;

(4) You rely on your customer to provide assurance that the food will be processed to control the identified hazard by an entity in the distribution chain subsequent to the customer and you:

(i) Disclose in documents accompanying the food, in accordance with the practice of the trade, that the food is "not processed to control [identified hazard]"; and

(ii) Annually obtain from your customer written assurance, subject to the requirements of paragraph (c) of this section, that your customer:

(A) Will disclose in documents accompanying the food, in accordance with the practice of the trade, that the food is "not processed to control [identified hazard]"; and

(B) Will only sell the food to another entity that agrees, in writing, it will:

(1 ) Follow procedures (identified in a written assurance) that will significantly minimize or prevent the identified hazard (if the entity is subject to the requirements for hazard analysis and risk-based preventive controls in subpart C of part 117 or subpart C of part 507 of this chapter) or manufacture, process, or prepare the food in accordance with applicable food safety requirements (if the entity is not subject to the requirements for hazard analysis and risk-based preventive controls in subpart C of part 117 or subpart C of part 507); or

(2 ) Obtain a similar written assurance from the entity's customer, subject to the requirements of paragraph (c) of this section, as in paragraphs (a)(4)(ii)(A) and (B) of this section, as appropriate; or

(5) You have established, documented, and implemented a system that ensures control, at a subsequent distribution step, of the hazards in the food you distribute and you document your implementation of that system.

(b) Written assurances. Any written assurances required under this section must contain the following:

(1) Effective date;

(2) Printed names and signatures of authorized officials; and

(3) The assurance specified in the applicable paragraph.

(c) Provision of assurances. The customer or other subsequent entity in the distribution chain for a food that provides a written assurance under paragraph (a)(2), (3), or (4) of this section must act consistently with the assurance and document its actions taken to satisfy the written assurance.

Sec. 1.508 What corrective actions must I take under my FSVP?

(a) You must promptly take appropriate corrective actions if you determine that a foreign supplier of food you import does not produce the food in compliance with processes and procedures that provide at least the same level of public health protection as those required under section 418 or 419 of the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act, if either is applicable, and the implementing regulations, or produces food that is adulterated under section 402 or misbranded under section 403(w) (if applicable) of the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act. This determination could be based on a review of consumer, customer, or other complaints related to food safety, the verification activities conducted under 1.506 or 1.511(c), a reevaluation of the risks posed by the food and the foreign supplier's performance conducted under 1.505(c) or (d), or any other relevant information you obtain. The appropriate corrective actions will depend on the circumstances but could include discontinuing use of the foreign supplier until the cause or causes of noncompliance, adulteration, or misbranding have been adequately addressed. You must document any corrective actions you take in accordance with this paragraph.

(b) If you determine, by means other than the verification activities conducted under 1.506 or 1.511(c) or a reevaluation conducted under 1.505(c) or (d), that a foreign supplier of food that you import does not produce food in compliance with processes and procedures that provide at least the same level of public health protection as those required under section 418 or 419 of the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act, if either is applicable, and the implementing regulations, or produces food that is adulterated under section 402 or misbranded under section 403(w) (if applicable) of the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act, you must promptly investigate to determine whether your FSVP is adequate and, when appropriate, modify your FSVP. You must document any investigations, corrective actions, and changes to your FSVP that you undertake in accordance with this paragraph.

(c) This section does not limit your obligations with respect to other laws enforced by FDA, such as those relating to product recalls.

Sec. 1.509 How must the importer be identified at entry?

(a) You must ensure that, for each line entry of food product offered for importation into the United States, your name, electronic mail address, and unique facility identifier recognized as acceptable by FDA, identifying you as the importer of the food, are provided electronically when filing entry with U.S. Customs and Border Protection.

(b) Before an article of food is imported or offered for import into the United States, the foreign owner or consignee of the food (if there is no U.S. owner or consignee) must designate a U.S. agent or representative as the importer of the food for the purposes of the definition of "importer" in 1.500.

Sec. 1.510 How must I maintain records of my FSVP?

(a) General requirements for records. (1) You must keep records as original records, true copies (such as photocopies, pictures, scanned copies, microfilm, microfiche, or other accurate reproductions of the original records), or electronic records.

(2) You must sign and date records concerning your FSVP upon initial completion and upon any modification of the FSVP.

(3) All records must be legible and stored to prevent deterioration or loss.

(b) Record availability. (1) You must make all records required under this subpart available promptly to an authorized FDA representative, upon request, for inspection and copying. Upon FDA request, you must provide within a reasonable time an English translation of records maintained in a language other than English.

(2) Offsite storage of records, including records maintained by other entities in accordance with 1.504, 1.505, or 1.506, is permitted if such records can be retrieved and provided onsite within 24 hours of request for official review. Electronic records are considered to be onsite if they are accessible from an onsite location.

(3) If requested in writing by FDA, you must send records to the Agency electronically, or through another means that delivers the records promptly, rather than making the records available for review at your place of business.

(c) Record retention. (1) Except as specified in paragraph (c)(2) of this section, you must retain records referenced in this subpart until at least 2 years after you created or obtained the records.

(2) You must retain records that relate to your processes and procedures, including the results of evaluations and determinations you conduct, for at least 2 years after their use is discontinued (e.g., because you no longer import a particular food, you no longer use a particular foreign supplier, you have reevaluated the risks associated with a food and the foreign supplier, or you have changed your supplier verification activities for a particular food and foreign supplier).

(d) Electronic records. Records that are established or maintained to satisfy the requirements of this subpart and that meet the definition of electronic records in 11.3(b)(6) of this chapter are exempt from the requirements of part 11 of this chapter. Records that satisfy the requirements of this subpart, but that also are required under other applicable statutory provisions or regulations, remain subject to part 11.

(e) Use of existing records. (1) You do not need to duplicate existing records you have (e.g., records that you maintain to comply with other Federal, State, or local regulations) if they contain all of the information required by this subpart. You may supplement any such existing records as necessary to include all of the information required by this subpart.

(2) You do not need to maintain the information required by this subpart in one set of records. If existing records you have contain some of the required information, you may maintain any new information required by this subpart either separately or combined with the existing records.

(f) Public disclosure. Records obtained by FDA in accordance with this subpart are subject to the disclosure requirements under part 20 of this chapter.

Sec. 1.511 What FSVP must I have if I am importing a food subject to certain requirements in the dietary supplement current good manufacturing practice regulation?

(a) Importers subject to certain requirements in the dietary supplement current good manufacturing practice regulation. If you are required to establish specifications under 111.70(b) or (d) of this chapter with respect to a food that is a dietary supplement or dietary supplement component you import for further manufacturing, processing, or packaging as a dietary supplement, and you are in compliance with the requirements in 111.73 and 111.75 of this chapter applicable to determining whether the specifications you established are met for such food, then for that food you must comply with the requirements in 1.503 and 1.509, but you are not required to comply with the requirements in 1.502, 1.504 through 1.508, or 1.510. This requirement does not limit your obligations with respect to part 111 of this chapter or any other laws enforced by FDA.

(b) Importers whose customer is subject to certain requirements in the dietary supplement current good manufacturing practice regulation. If your customer is required to establish specifications under 111.70(b) or (d) of this chapter with respect to a food that is a dietary supplement or dietary supplement component you import for further manufacturing, processing, or packaging as a dietary supplement, your customer is in compliance with the requirements of 111.73 and 111.75 of this chapter applicable to determining whether the specifications it established are met for such food, and you annually obtain from your customer written assurance that it is in compliance with those requirements, then for that food you must comply with the requirements in 1.503, 1.509, and 1.510, but you are not required to comply with the requirements in 1.502 or 1.504 through 1.508.

(c) Other importers of dietary supplements --(1) General. If the food you import is a dietary supplement and neither paragraph (a) or (b) of this section is applicable, you must comply with paragraph (c) of this section and the requirements in 1.503, 1.505(a)(1)(ii) through (iv), (a)(2), and (b) through (d), and 1.508 through 1.510, but you are not required to comply with the requirements in 1.504, 1.505(a)(1)(i), 1.506, and 1.507. This requirement does not limit your obligations with respect to part 111 of this chapter or any other laws enforced by FDA.

(2) Use of approved foreign suppliers. (i) You must establish and follow written procedures to ensure that you import foods only from foreign suppliers that you have approved based on the evaluation conducted under 1.505 (or, when necessary and appropriate, on a temporary basis from unapproved foreign suppliers whose foods you subject to adequate verification activities before importing the food). You must document your use of these procedures.

(ii) You may rely on an entity other than the foreign supplier to establish the procedures and perform and document the activities required under paragraph (c)(2)(i) of this section provided that you review and assess that entity's documentation of the procedures and activities, and you document your review and assessment.

(3) Foreign supplier verification procedures. You must establish and follow adequate written procedures for ensuring that appropriate foreign supplier verification activities are conducted with respect to the foods you import.

(4) Determination of appropriate foreign supplier verification activities --(i) General. Except as provided in paragraph (c)(4)(iii) of this section, before importing a dietary supplement from a foreign supplier, you must determine and document which verification activity or activities listed in paragraphs (c)(4)(ii)(A) through (D) of this section, as well as the frequency with which the activity or activities must be conducted, are needed to provide adequate assurances that the foreign supplier is producing the dietary supplement in accordance with processes and procedures that provide the same level of public health protection as those required under part 111 of this chapter. This determination must be based on the evaluation conducted under 1.505.

(ii) Appropriate verification activities. The following are appropriate supplier verification activities:

(A) Onsite audits as specified in paragraph (c)(5)(i)(A) of this section;

(B) Sampling and testing of a food as specified in paragraph (c)(5)(i)(B) of this section;

(C) Review of the foreign supplier's relevant food safety records as specified in paragraph (c)(5)(i)(C) of this section; and

(D) Other appropriate supplier verification activities as specified in paragraph (c)(5)(i)(D) of this section.

(iii) Reliance upon determination by other entity. You may rely on a determination of appropriate foreign supplier verification activities in accordance with paragraph (c)(4)(i) of this section made by an entity other than the foreign supplier if you review and assess whether the entity's determination regarding appropriate activities (including the frequency with which such activities must be conducted) is appropriate based on the evaluation conducted in accordance with 1.505. You must document your review and assessment, including documenting that the determination of appropriate verification activities was made by a qualified individual.

(5) Performance of foreign supplier verification activities. (i) Except as provided in paragraph (c)(5)(ii) of this section, for each dietary supplement you import under paragraph (c) of this section, you must conduct (and document) or obtain documentation of one or more of the verification activities listed in paragraphs (c)(5)(i)(A) through (D) of this section before importing the dietary supplement and periodically thereafter.

(A) Onsite auditing. You conduct (and document) or obtain documentation of a periodic onsite audit of your foreign supplier.

(1 ) An onsite audit of a foreign supplier must be performed by a qualified auditor.

(2 ) The onsite audit must consider the applicable requirements of part 111 of this chapter and include a review of the foreign supplier's written food safety plan, if any, and its implementation (or, when applicable, an onsite audit may consider relevant laws and regulations of a country whose food safety system FDA has officially recognized as comparable or determined to be equivalent to that of the United States).

(3 ) If the onsite audit is conducted solely to meet the requirements of paragraph (c)(5) of this section by an audit agent of a certification body that is accredited in accordance with subpart M of this part, the audit is not subject to the requirements in that subpart.

(4 ) You must retain documentation of each onsite audit, including the audit procedures, the dates the audit was conducted, the conclusions of the audit, any corrective actions taken in response to significant deficiencies identified during the audit, and documentation that the audit was conducted by a qualified auditor.

(5 ) The following inspection results may be substituted for an onsite audit, provided that the inspection was conducted within 1 year of the date by which the onsite audit would have been required to be conducted:

(i ) The written results of appropriate inspection of the foreign supplier for compliance with the applicable requirements in part 111 of this chapter conducted by FDA, representatives of other Federal Agencies (such as the USDA), or representatives of State, local, tribal, or territorial agencies; or

(ii ) The written results of an inspection by the food safety authority of a country whose food safety system FDA has officially recognized as comparable or determined to be equivalent to that of the United States, provided that the food that is the subject of the onsite audit is within the scope of the official recognition or equivalence determination, and the foreign supplier is in, and under the regulatory oversight of, such country.

(B) Sampling and testing of the food. You must retain documentation of each sampling and testing of a dietary supplement, including identification of the food tested (including lot number, as appropriate), the number of samples tested, the test(s) conducted (including the analytical method(s) used), the date(s) on which the test(s) were conducted and the date of the report of the testing, the results of the testing, any corrective actions taken in response to detection of hazards, information identifying the laboratory conducting the testing, and documentation that the testing was conducted by a qualified individual.

(C) Review of the foreign supplier's food safety records. You must retain documentation of each record review, including the date(s) of review, the general nature of the records reviewed, the conclusions of the review, any corrective actions taken in response to significant deficiencies identified during the review, and documentation that the review was conducted by a qualified individual.

(D) Other appropriate activity. (1 ) You may conduct (and document) or obtain documentation of other supplier verification activities that are appropriate based on foreign supplier performance and the risk associated with the food.

(2 ) You must retain documentation of each activity conducted in accordance with paragraph (c)(5)(i)(D)(1 ) of this section, including a description of the activity, the date on which it was conducted, the findings or results of the activity, any corrective actions taken in response to significant deficiencies identified, and documentation that the activity was conducted by a qualified individual.

(ii) Reliance upon performance of activities by other entities. (A) Except as specified in paragraph (c)(5)(ii)(B) of this section, you may rely on supplier verification activities conducted in accordance with paragraph (c)(5)(i) by another entity provided that you review and assess the results of these activities in accordance with paragraph (c)(5)(iii) of this section.

(B) You may not rely on the foreign supplier or employees of the foreign supplier to perform supplier verification activities, except with respect to sampling and testing of food in accordance with paragraph (c)(5)(i)(B) of this section.

(iii) Review of results of verification activities. You must promptly review and assess the results of the verification activities that you conduct or obtain documentation of under paragraph (c)(5)(i) of this section, or that are conducted by other entities in accordance with paragraph (c)(5)(ii) of this section. You must document your review and assessment of the results of verification activities. If the results show that the foreign supplier is not producing the dietary supplement in accordance with processes and procedures that provide the same level of public health protection as those required under part 111 of this chapter, you must take appropriate action in accordance with 1.508(a). You are not required to retain documentation of supplier verification activities conducted by other entities, provided that you can obtain the documentation and make it available to FDA in accordance with 1.510(b).

(iv) Independence of qualified individuals conducting verification activities. There must not be any financial conflicts of interest that influence the results of the verification activities set forth in paragraph (c)(5)(i) of this section, and payment must not be related to the results of the activity.

[80 FR 74340, Nov. 27, 2015, as amended at 81 FR 25327, Apr. 28, 2016]

Sec. 1.512 What FSVP may I have if I am a very small importer or I am importing certain food from certain small foreign suppliers?

(a) Eligibility. This section applies only if:

(1) You are a very small importer; or

(2) You are importing certain food from certain small foreign suppliers as follows:

(i) The foreign supplier is a qualified facility as defined by 117.3 or 507.3 of this chapter;

(ii) You are importing produce from a foreign supplier that is a farm that grows produce and is not a covered farm under part 112 of this chapter in accordance with 112.4(a) of this chapter, or in accordance with 112.4(b) and 112.5 of this chapter; or

(iii) You are importing shell eggs from a foreign supplier that is not subject to the requirements of part 118 of this chapter because it has fewer than 3,000 laying hens.

(b) Applicable requirements --(1) Documentation of eligibility --(i) Very small importer status. (A) If you are a very small importer and you choose to comply with the requirements in this section, you must document that you meet the definition of very small importer in 1.500 with respect to human food and/or animal food before initially importing food as a very small importer and thereafter on an annual basis by December 31 of each calendar year.

(B) For the purpose of determining whether you satisfy the definition of very small importer with respect to human food and/or animal food for a given calendar year, the relevant 3-year period of sales (and U.S. market value of human or animal food, as appropriate) is the period ending 1 year before the calendar year for which you intend to import food as a very small importer. The baseline year for calculating the adjustment for inflation is 2011. If you conduct any food sales in currency other than U.S. dollars, you must use the relevant currency exchange rate in effect on December 31 of the year in which sales occurred to calculate the value of these sales.

(ii) Small foreign supplier status. If you are a importing food from a small foreign supplier as specified in paragraph (a)(2) of this section and you choose to comply with the requirements in this section, you must obtain written assurance that your foreign supplier meets the criteria in paragraph (a)(2)(i), (ii), or (iii) of this section before first approving the supplier for an applicable calendar year and thereafter on an annual basis by December 31 of each calendar year, for the following calendar year.

(2) Additional requirements. If this section applies and you choose to comply with the requirements in paragraph (b) of this section, you also are required to comply with the requirements in 1.502, 1.503, and 1.509, but you are not required to comply with the requirements in 1.504 through 1.508 or 1.510.

(3) Foreign supplier verification activities. (i) If you are a very small importer, for each food you import, you must obtain written assurance, before importing the food and at least every 2 years thereafter, that your foreign supplier is producing the food in compliance with processes and procedures that provide at least the same level of public health protection as those required under section 418 or 419 of the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act, if either is applicable, and the implementing regulations, and is producing the food in compliance with sections 402 and 403(w) (if applicable) of the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act.

(ii) If your foreign supplier is a qualified facility as defined by 117.3 or 507.3 of this chapter and you choose to comply with the requirements in this section, you must obtain written assurance, before importing the food and at least every 2 years thereafter, that the foreign supplier is producing the food in compliance with applicable FDA food safety regulations (or, when applicable, relevant laws and regulations of a country whose food safety system FDA has officially recognized as comparable or determined to be equivalent to that of the United States). The written assurance must include either:

(A) A brief description of the preventive controls that the supplier is implementing to control the applicable hazard in the food; or

(B) A statement that the supplier is in compliance with State, local, county, tribal, or other applicable non-Federal food safety law, including relevant laws and regulations of foreign countries.

(iii) If your foreign supplier is a farm that grows produce and is not a covered farm under part 112 of this chapter in accordance with 112.4(a) of this chapter, or in accordance with 112.4(b) and 112.5 of this chapter, and you choose to comply with the requirements in this section, you must obtain written assurance, before importing the produce and at least every 2 years thereafter, that the farm acknowledges that its food is subject to section 402 of the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act (or, when applicable, that its food is subject to relevant laws and regulations of a country whose food safety system FDA has officially recognized as comparable or determined to be equivalent to that of the United States).

(iv) If your foreign supplier is a shell egg producer that is not subject to the requirements of part 118 of this chapter because it has fewer than 3,000 laying hens and you choose to comply with the requirements in this section, you must obtain written assurance, before importing the shell eggs and at least every 2 years thereafter, that the shell egg producer acknowledges that its food is subject to section 402 of the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act (or, when applicable, that its food is subject to relevant laws and regulations of a country whose food safety system FDA has officially recognized as comparable or determined to be equivalent to that of the United States).

(4) Corrective actions. You must promptly take appropriate corrective actions if you determine that a foreign supplier of food you import does not produce the food consistent with the assurance provided in accordance with 1.512(b)(3)(i) through (iv). The appropriate corrective actions will depend on the circumstances but could include discontinuing use of the foreign supplier until the cause or causes of noncompliance, adulteration, or misbranding have been adequately addressed. You must document any corrective actions you take in accordance with this paragraph (b)(4). This paragraph (b)(4) does not limit your obligations with respect to other laws enforced by FDA, such as those relating to product recalls.

(5) Records --(i) General requirements for records. (A) You must keep records as original records, true copies (such as photocopies, pictures, scanned copies, microfilm, microfiche, or other accurate reproductions of the original records), or electronic records.

(B) You must sign and date records concerning your FSVP upon initial completion and upon any modification of the FSVP.

(C) All records must be legible and stored to prevent deterioration or loss.

(ii) Availability. (A) You must make all records required under this subpart available promptly to an authorized FDA representative, upon request, for inspection and copying. Upon FDA request, you must provide within a reasonable time an English translation of records maintained in a language other than English.

(B) Offsite storage of records, including records retained by other entities in accordance with paragraph (c) of this section, is permitted if such records can be retrieved and provided onsite within 24 hours of request for official review. Electronic records are considered to be onsite if they are accessible from an onsite location.

(C) If requested in writing by FDA, you must send records to the Agency electronically or through another means that delivers the records promptly, rather than making the records available for review at your place of business.

(iii) Record retention. (A) Except as specified in paragraph (b)(5)(iii)(B) or (C) of this section, you must retain records required under this subpart for a period of at least 2 years after you created or obtained the records.

(B) If you are subject to paragraph (c) of this section, you must retain records that relate to your processes and procedures, including the results of evaluations of foreign suppliers and procedures to ensure the use of approved suppliers, for at least 2 years after their use is discontinued (e.g., because you have reevaluated a foreign supplier's compliance history or changed your procedures to ensure the use of approved suppliers).

(C) You must retain for at least 3 years records that you rely on during the 3-year period preceding the applicable calendar year to support your status as a very small importer.

(iv) Electronic records. Records that are established or maintained to satisfy the requirements of this subpart and that meet the definition of electronic records in 11.3(b)(6) of this chapter are exempt from the requirements of part 11 of this chapter. Records that satisfy the requirements of this part, but that also are required under other applicable statutory provisions or regulations, remain subject to part 11.

(v) Use of existing records. (A) You do not need to duplicate existing records you have (e.g., records that you maintain to comply with other Federal, State, or local regulations) if they contain all of the information required by this subpart. You may supplement any such existing records as necessary to include all of the information required by this subpart.

(B) You do not need to maintain the information required by this subpart in one set of records. If existing records you have contain some of the required information, you may maintain any new information required by this subpart either separately or combined with the existing records.

(vi) Public disclosure. Records obtained by FDA in accordance with this subpart are subject to the disclosure requirements under part 20 of this chapter.

(c) Requirements for importers of food from certain small foreign suppliers. The following additional requirements apply if you are importing food from certain small foreign suppliers as specified in paragraph (a)(2) of this section and you are not a very small importer:

(1) Evaluation of foreign supplier compliance history --(i) Initial evaluation. Except as specified in paragraph (c)(1)(iii) of this section, in approving your foreign suppliers, you must evaluate the applicable FDA food safety regulations and information relevant to the foreign supplier's compliance with those regulations, including whether the foreign supplier is the subject of an FDA warning letter, import alert, or other FDA compliance action related to food safety, and document the evaluation. You may also consider other factors relevant to a foreign supplier's performance, including those specified in 1.505(a)(1)(iii)(A) and (C).

(ii) Reevaluation of foreign supplier compliance history. (A) Except as specified in paragraph (c)(1)(iii) of this section, you must promptly reevaluate the concerns associated with the foreign supplier's compliance history when you become aware of new information about the matters in paragraph (c)(1)(i) of this section, and the reevaluation must be documented. If you determine that the concerns associated with importing a food from a foreign supplier have changed, you must promptly determine (and document) whether it is appropriate to continue to import the food from the foreign supplier.

(B) If at the end of any 3-year period you have not reevaluated the concerns associated with the foreign supplier's compliance history in accordance with paragraph (c)(1)(ii)(A) of this section, you must reevaluate those concerns and take other appropriate actions, if necessary, in accordance with paragraph (c)(1)(ii)(A). You must document your reevaluation and any subsequent actions you take in accordance with paragraph (c)(1)(ii)(A).

(iii) Review of another entity's evaluation or reevaluation of foreign supplier compliance history. If an entity other than the foreign supplier has, using a qualified individual, performed the evaluation described in paragraph (c)(1)(i) of this section or the reevaluation described in paragraph (c)(1)(ii), you may meet the requirements of the applicable paragraph by reviewing and assessing the evaluation or reevaluation conducted by that entity. You must document your review and assessment, including documenting that the evaluation or reevaluation was conducted by a qualified individual.

(2) Approval of foreign supplier. You must approve your foreign suppliers on the basis of the evaluation you conducted under paragraph (c)(1)(i) of this section or that you review and assess under paragraph (c)(1)(iii) of this section, and document your approval.

(3) Use of approved foreign suppliers. (i) You must establish and follow written procedures to ensure that you import foods only from foreign suppliers you have approved based on the evaluation conducted under paragraph (c)(1)(i) of this section (or, when necessary and appropriate, on a temporary basis from unapproved foreign suppliers whose foods you subject to adequate verification activities before importing the food). You must document your use of these procedures.

(ii) You may rely on an entity other than the foreign supplier to establish the procedures and perform and document the activities required under paragraph (c)(3)(i) of this section provided that you review and assess that entity's documentation of the procedures and activities, and you document your review and assessment.

[80 FR 74340, Nov. 27, 2015, as amended at 81 FR 25327, Apr. 28, 2016]

Sec. 1.513 What FSVP may I have if I am importing certain food from a country with an officially recognized or equivalent food safety system?

(a) General. (1) If you meet the conditions and requirements of paragraph (b) of this section for a food of the type specified in paragraph (a)(2) of this section that you are importing, then you are not required to comply with the requirements in 1.504 through 1.508. You would still be required to comply with the requirements in 1.503, 1.509, and 1.510.

(2) This section applies to food that is not intended for further manufacturing/processing, including packaged food products and raw agricultural commodities that will not be commercially processed further before consumption.

(b) Conditions and requirements. (1) Before importing a food from the foreign supplier and annually thereafter, you must document that the foreign supplier is in, and under the regulatory oversight of, a country whose food safety system FDA has officially recognized as comparable or determined to be equivalent to that of the United States, and that the food is within the scope of that official recognition or equivalency determination.

(2) Before importing a food from the foreign supplier, you must determine and document whether the foreign supplier of the food is in good compliance standing with the food safety authority of the country in which the foreign supplier is located. You must continue to monitor whether the foreign supplier is in good compliance standing and promptly review any information obtained. If the information indicates that food safety hazards associated with the food are not being significantly minimized or prevented, you must take prompt corrective action. The appropriate corrective action will depend on the circumstances but could include discontinuing use of the foreign supplier. You must document any corrective actions that you undertake in accordance with this paragraph (b)(2).

Sec. 1.514 What are some consequences of failing to comply with the requirements of this subpart?

(a) Refusal of admission. An article of food is subject to refusal of admission under section 801(a)(3) of the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act if it appears that the importer of that food fails to comply with this subpart with respect to that food. If there is no U.S. owner or consignee of an article of food at the time the food is offered for entry into the United States, the article of food may not be imported into the United States unless the foreign owner or consignee has appropriately designated a U.S. agent or representative as the importer in accordance with 1.500.

(b) Prohibited act. The importation or offering for importation into the United States of an article of food without the importer having an FSVP that meets the requirements of section 805 of the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act, including the requirements of this subpart, is prohibited under section 301(zz) of the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act.

Authority: 15 U.S.C. 1333, 1453, 1454, 1455, 4402; 19 U.S.C. 1490, 1491; 21 U.S.C. 321, 331, 332, 333, 334, 335a, 342, 343, 350c, 350d, 350e, 350j, 350k, 352, 355, 360b, 360ccc, 360ccc-1, 360ccc-2, 362, 371, 373, 374, 379j-31, 381, 382, 384a, 384b, 384d, 387, 387a, 387c, 393; 42 U.S.C. 216, 241, 243, 262, 264, 271; Pub. L. 107-188, 116 Stat. 594, 668-69; Pub. L. 111-353, 124 Stat. 3885, 3889.
Source: 42 FR 15553, Mar. 22, 1977, unless otherwise noted.

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