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U.S. Department of Health and Human Services

CFR - Code of Federal Regulations Title 21

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The information on this page is current as of April 1 2020.

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Help | More About 21CFR
[Code of Federal Regulations]
[Title 21, Volume 2]
[Revised as of April 1, 2020]
[CITE: 21CFR106]





TITLE 21--FOOD AND DRUGS
CHAPTER I--FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION
DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES
SUBCHAPTER B - FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION
 
PART 106INFANT FORMULA REQUIREMENTS PERTAINING TO CURRENT GOOD MANUFACTURING PRACTICE, QUALITY CONTROL PROCEDURES, QUALITY FACTORS, RECORDS AND REPORTS, AND NOTIFICATIONS
 

Subpart F - Records and Reports

Sec. 106.100 Records.

(a) Every manufacturer of infant formula shall maintain the records specified in this regulation in order to permit the Food and Drug Administration to determine whether each manufacturer is in compliance with section 412 of the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act (21 U.S.C. 350a)).

(b) The manufacturer shall maintain all records that pertain to food-packaging materials subject to § 174.5 of this chapter and that bear on whether such materials would cause an infant formula to be adulterated within the meaning of section 402(a)(2)(C) of the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act (21 U.S.C. 342(a)(2)(C)).

(c) The manufacturer shall maintain all records that pertain to nutrient premix testing that it generates or receives. Such records shall include, but are not limited to:

(1) Any results of testing conducted to ensure that each nutrient premix is in compliance with the premix certificate and guarantee and specifications that have been provided to the manufacturer by the premix supplier, including tests conducted when nutrients exceed their expiration date or shelf life (retest date).

(2) All certificates and guarantees given by premix suppliers concerning the nutrients required by section 412(i) of the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act and § 107.100 of this chapter.

(d) The premix supplier shall maintain the results of all testing conducted to provide all certificates and guarantees concerning nutrient premixes for infant formulas. Such records shall include but are not limited to:

(1) The results of tests conducted to determine the purity of each nutrient required by section 412(i) of the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act or § 107.100 of this chapter and any other nutrient listed in the certificate and guarantee;

(2) The weight of each nutrient added;

(3) The results of any quantitative tests conducted to determine the amount of each nutrient certified or guaranteed; and

(4) The results of any quantitative tests conducted to identify the nutrient levels present when nutrient premixes exceed their expiration date or shelf life (retest date).

(e) For each production aggregate of infant formula, a manufacturer shall prepare and maintain records that include complete information relating to the production and control of the production aggregate. These records shall include:

(1) The master manufacturing order. The master manufacturing order shall include:

(i) The significant steps in the production of the production aggregate and the date on which each significant step occurred;

(ii) For a manufacturing facility that has more than one set of equipment or more than one processing line, the identity of equipment and processing lines for which the manufacturer has identified points, steps, or stages in the production process where control is necessary to prevent adulteration;

(iii) The identity of each lot of ingredients, containers, and closures used in producing the production aggregate of formula;

(iv) The amount of each ingredient to be added to the production aggregate of infant formula and a check (verification) that the correct amount was added; and

(v) A copy of each infant formula label used on a finished production aggregate of infant formula and the results of examinations conducted during the finishing operations to provide assurance that the containers and packages have the correct label.

(2) Any deviations from the master manufacturing order and any corrective actions taken because of the deviations.

(3) Documentation, in accordance with § 106.6(c), of the monitoring at any point, step, or stage in the manufacturer 's production process where control is deemed necessary to prevent adulteration. These records shall include:

(i) A list of the specifications established at each point, step, or stage in the production process where control is deemed necessary to prevent adulteration, in accordance with § 106.6(c)(1), including documentation of the scientific basis for each specification;

(ii) The actual values obtained during the monitoring operation, any deviations from established specifications, and any corrective actions taken; and

(iii) Identification of the person monitoring each point, step, or stage in the production process where control is deemed necessary to prevent adulteration.

(4) The conclusions and followup, along with the identity of the individual qualified by education, training, or experience who investigated:

(i) Any deviation from the master manufacturing order and any corrective actions taken;

(ii) A finding that a production aggregate or any of its ingredients failed to meet the infant formula manufacturer's specifications; and

(iii) A failure to meet any specification at any point, step, or stage in the production process where control is deemed necessary to prevent adulteration.

(5) The results of all testing performed on the production aggregate of infant formula, including testing on the in-process production aggregate, at the final product stage, and on finished product throughout the shelf life of the product. The results recorded shall include:

(i) The results of all quality control testing conducted in accordance with § 106.91(a) and (b) to verify that each nutrient required by § 107.100 of this chapter is present in each production aggregate of infant formula at the level required by § 107.100 of this chapter, and that all other nutrients added by the manufacturer are present at the appropriate level. The record of the results of the quality control testing shall include:

(A) A summary document identifying the stages of the manufacturing process at which the nutrient analysis for each required nutrient is conducted as required under § 106.91(a); and

(B) A summary document on the stability testing program conducted under § 106.91(b), including the nutrients tested and the frequency of nutrient testing throughout the shelf life of the product.

(ii) For powdered infant formula, the results of any testing conducted in accordance with § 106.55(c) to verify compliance with the microbiological quality standards in § 106.55(e).

(f) A manufacturer shall make and retain all records described in subparts B and C of this part, including:

(1) Records, in accordance with § 106.20(f)(4), of the frequency and results of testing of the water used in the production of infant formula;

(2) Records, in accordance with § 106.30(d), of accuracy checks of instruments and controls. A certification of accuracy of any known reference standard used and a history of recertification shall be maintained. At a minimum, such records shall specify the instrument or control being checked, the date of the accuracy check, the standard used, the calibration method used, the results found, any actions taken if the instrument is found to be out of calibration, and the initials or name of the individual performing the test. If calibration of an instrument shows that a specification at a point, step, or stage in the production process where control is deemed necessary to prevent adulteration has not been met, a written evaluation of all affected product, and any actions that need to be taken with respect to that product, shall be made.

(3) Records, in accordance with § 106.30(e)(3)(iii).

(4) Records, in accordance with § 106.30(f), on equipment cleaning, sanitizing, and maintenance that show the date and time of such cleaning, sanitizing, and maintenance and the production aggregate number of each infant formula processed between equipment startup and shutdown for cleaning, sanitizing, and maintenance. The person performing and checking the cleaning, sanitizing, and maintenance shall date and sign or initial the record indicating that the work was performed.

(5) Records, in accordance with § 106.35(c), on all mechanical and electronic equipment used in the production or quality control of infant formula. These records shall include:

(i) A list of all systems used with a description of the computer files and the defined capabilities and inherent limitations of each system;

(ii) A copy of all software used;

(iii) Records that document installation, calibration, testing or validation, and maintenance of the systems used;

(iv) A list of all persons authorized to create or modify software;

(v) Records that document modifications to software, including the identity of the person who modified the software;

(vi) Records that document retesting or revalidation of modified systems; and

(vii) A backup file of data entered into a computer or related system. The backup file shall consist of a hard copy or alternative system, such as duplicate electronic records, tapes, or microfilm, designed to ensure that backup data are exact and complete, and that they are secure from alteration, inadvertent erasures, or loss.

(6) Records, in accordance with § 106.40(g), on ingredients, containers, and closures used in the manufacture of infant formula. These records shall include:

(i) The identity and quantity of each lot of ingredients, containers, and closures;

(ii) The name of the supplier;

(iii) The supplier's lot numbers;

(iv) The name and location of the manufacturer of the ingredient, container, or closure, if different from the supplier;

(v) The date of receipt;

(vi) The receiving code as specified; and

(vii) The results of any test or examination (including retesting and reexamination) performed on the ingredients, containers, or closures and the conclusions derived there from and the disposition of all ingredients, containers, or closures.

(7) A full description of the methodology used to test powdered infant formula to verify compliance with the microbiological quality standards of § 106.55(c) and the methodology used to do quality control testing, in accordance with § 106.91(a).

(g) A manufacturer shall maintain all records pertaining to distribution of the infant formula, including records that show that formula produced for export only is exported. Such records shall include all information and data necessary to effect and monitor recalls of the manufacturer's infant formula products in accordance with subpart E of part 107 of this chapter.

(h) The manufacturer shall maintain all records pertaining to the microbiological quality and purity of raw materials and finished powdered infant formula.

(i) [Reserved]

(j) The manufacturer shall make and retain records pertaining to regularly scheduled audits, including the audit plans and procedures, the findings of the audit, and a listing of any changes made in response to these findings. The manufacturer shall make readily available for authorized inspection the audit plans and procedures and a statement of assurance that the regularly scheduled audits are being conducted. The findings of the audit and any changes made in response to these findings shall be maintained for the time period required under paragraph (n) of this section, but need not be made available to the Food and Drug Administration.

(k) The manufacturer shall maintain procedures describing how all written and oral complaints regarding infant formula will be handled. The manufacturer shall follow these procedures and shall include in them provisions for the review of any complaint involving an infant formula and for determining the need for an investigation of the possible existence of a hazard to health.

(1) For purposes of this section, every manufacturer shall interpret a "complaint" as any communication that contains any allegation, written or oral, expressing dissatisfaction with a product for any reason, including concerns about the possible existence of a hazard to health and about appearance, taste, odor, and quality. Correspondence about prices, package size or shape, or other matters that could not possibly reveal the existence of a hazard to health shall not, for compliance purposes, be considered a complaint and therefore need not be made available to a Food and Drug Administration investigator.

(2) When a complaint shows that a hazard to health possibly exists, the manufacturer shall conduct an investigation into the validity of the complaint. Where such an investigation is conducted, the manufacturer shall include in its file on the complaint the determination as to whether a hazard to health exists and the basis for that determination. No investigation is necessary when the manufacturer determines that there is no possibility of a hazard to health. When no investigation is necessary, the manufacturer shall include in the record the reason that an investigation was found to be unnecessary and the name of the responsible person making that determination.

(3) When there is a reasonable possibility of a causal relationship between the consumption of an infant formula and an infant's death, the manufacturer shall, within 15 days of receiving such information, conduct an investigation and notify the Agency as required in § 106.150.

(4) The manufacturer shall maintain in designated files all records pertaining to the complaints it receives. The manufacturer shall separate the files into two classes:

(i) Those complaints that allege that the infant became ill from consuming the product or required treatment by a physician or health care provider and

(ii) Those complaints that may involve a possible existence of a hazard to health but do not refer to an infant becoming ill or the need for treatment by physician or a health care provider.

(5) The manufacturer shall include in a complaint file the following information concerning the complaint:

(i) The name of the infant formula;

(ii) The production aggregate number;

(iii) The name of complainant;

(iv) A copy of the complaint or a memo of the telephone conversation or meeting and all correspondence with the complainant;

(v) By reference or copy, all the associated manufacturing records and complaint investigation records needed to evaluate the complaint. When copies of such records are not maintained in the complaint file, they must be available within 24 hours when requested by a Food and Drug Administration official.

(vi) All actions taken to followup on the complaint; and

(vii) All findings and evaluations of the complaint.

(6) The manufacturer should maintain the files regarding infant formula complaints at the establishment where the infant formula was manufactured, processed, or packed. When the manufacturer wishes to maintain all consumer complaints for the entire firm at one location other than at the facility where an infant formula was manufactured, processed, or packed, the manufacturer may do so as long as all records required by this section are available within 24 hours of request for inspection at that facility. However, all records of consumer complaints, including summaries, any reports, and any files, maintained at the manufacturing facility or at any other facility shall be made available to investigators for review and copying upon request.

(l) The manufacturer shall make readily available for authorized inspection all records required under this part or copies of such records. Records shall be available at any reasonable time at the establishment where the activities described in such records occurred. (Infant formula complaint files may be maintained at one facility, as provided in paragraph (k)(6) of this section, if all required records are readily available at that facility.) These records or copies thereof shall be subject to photocopying or other means of reproduction as part of such inspection. Records that can be immediately retrieved from another location by electronic means shall be considered as meeting the requirements of this paragraph.

(m) A manufacturer shall maintain all records required under this part in a manner that ensures that both the manufacturer and the Food and Drug Administration can be provided with access to such records within 24 hours. The manufacturer may maintain the records required under this part as original records, as true copies such as photocopies, microfilm, microfiche, or other accurate reproductions of the original records, or as electronic records. Where reduction techniques, such as microfilming, are used, suitable reader and photocopying equipment shall be readily available. All electronic records maintained under this part shall comply with part 11 of this chapter.

(n) Production control, product testing, testing results, complaints, and distribution records necessary to verify compliance with parts 106, 107, 109, 110, 113, and 117 of this chapter, or with other appropriate regulations, shall be retained for 1 year after the expiration of the shelf life of the infant formula or 3 years from the date of manufacture, whichever is greater.

(o) The manufacturer shall maintain quality control records that contain sufficient information to permit a public health evaluation of any production aggregate of infant formula.

(p) A manufacturer shall make and retain records that demonstrate that the formula meets the quality factor of normal physical growth.

(1) For an infant formula that is not an eligible infant formula, in accordance with § 106.96(d), these records shall include:

(i) Records demonstrating compliance with the requirements in § 106.96(b), including records made in compliance with § 106.121; or

(ii) Records demonstrating satisfaction of an applicable exemption under § 106.96(c), including records made in compliance with § 106.121.

(2) For an eligible infant formula, in accordance with § 106.96(i)(5), these records shall include records demonstrating that the formula fulfills one or more of the criteria listed in § 106.96(i)(1).

(q) A manufacturer shall make and retain records that demonstrate that a formula meets the quality factor of sufficient biological quality of protein.

(1) For an infant formula that is not an eligible infant formula, in accordance with § 106.96(h), these records shall include:

(i) Records demonstrating compliance with the requirements in § 106.96(f), including records made in compliance with § 106.121; or

(ii) Records demonstrating satisfaction of an applicable exemption under § 106.96(g), including records made in compliance with § 106.121.

(2) For an eligible infant formula, in accordance with § 106.96(i)(5), these records shall include records demonstrating that the formula fulfills one or more of the criteria listed in § 106.96(i)(2).

(r) The failure to comply with the records requirements in this section applicable to the quality factors shall render the formula adulterated under section 412(a)(2) of the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act. The failure to comply with the records requirements in this section applicable to the good manufacturing practices and quality control procedures, including distribution and audit records requirements, with respect to an infant formula shall render the formula adulterated under section 412(a)(3) of the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act. A failure to retain or make available records applicable to the quality factor requirements, quality control procedures, or current good manufacturing practices requirements in compliance with paragraph (l), (m), or (n) of this section with respect to a formula shall render the formula adulterated under section 412(a)(2) or (a)(3) of the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act, as applicable.

[79 FR 8059, Feb. 10, 2014, as amended at 79 FR 33072, June 10, 2014; 80 FR 56144, Sept. 17, 2015]

Authority: 21 U.S.C. 321, 342, 350a, 371.
Source: 79 FR 8059, Feb. 10, 2014, unless otherwise noted.

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