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U.S. Department of Health and Human Services

CFR - Code of Federal Regulations Title 21

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The information on this page is current as of April 1 2017.

For the most up-to-date version of CFR Title 21, go to the Electronic Code of Federal Regulations (eCFR).

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Help | More About 21CFR
[Code of Federal Regulations]
[Title 21, Volume 2]
[Revised as of April 1, 2017]
[CITE: 21CFR108]





TITLE 21--FOOD AND DRUGS
CHAPTER I--FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION
DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES
SUBCHAPTER B--FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION
 
PART 108EMERGENCY PERMIT CONTROL
 

Subpart A--General Provisions

Sec. 108.3 Definitions.

(a) The definitions contained in section 201 of the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act are applicable to such terms when used in this part.

(b) Commissioner means the Commissioner of Food and Drugs.

(c) Act means the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act, as amended.

(d) Permit means an emergency permit issued by the Commissioner pursuant to section 404 of the act for such temporary period of time as may be necessary to protect the public health.

(e) Manufacture, processing, or packing of food in any locality means activities conducted in a single plant or establishment, a series of plants under a single management, or all plants in an industry or region, by a manufacturer, processor, or packer.

Sec. 108.5 Determination of the need for a permit.

(a) Whenever the Commissioner determines after investigation that a manufacturer, processor, or packer of a food for which a regulation has been promulgated in subpart B of this part does not meet the mandatory conditions and requirements established in such regulation, he shall issue to such manufacturer, processor, or packer an order determining that a permit shall be required before the food may be introduced or delivered for introduction into interstate commerce by that person. The order shall specify the mandatory conditions and requirements with which there is a lack of compliance.

(1) The manufacturer, processor, or packer shall have 3 working days after receipt of such order within which to file objections. Such objections may be filed by telegram, telex, or any other mode of written communication addressed to the Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition, Food and Drug Administration (HFS-605), 5001 Campus Dr., College Park, MD 20740. If such objections are filed, the determination is stayed pending a hearing to be held within 5 working days after the filing of objections on the issues involved unless the Commissioner determines that the objections raise no genuine and substantial issue of fact to justify a hearing.

(2) If the Commissioner finds that there is an imminent hazard to health, the order shall contain this finding and the reasons therefor, and shall state that the determination of the need for a permit is effective immediately pending an expedited hearing.

(b) A hearing under this section shall be conducted by the Commissioner or his designee at a location agreed upon by the objector and the Commissioner or, if such agreement cannot be reached, at a location designated by the Commissioner. The manufacturer, processor, or packer shall have the right to cross-examine the Food and Drug Administration's witnesses and to present witnesses on his own behalf.

(c) Within 5 working days after the hearing, and based on the evidence presented at the hearing, the Commissioner shall determine whether a permit is required and shall so inform the manufacturer, processor, or packer in writing, with the reasons for his decision.

(d) The Commissioner's determination of the need for a permit constitutes final agency action from which appeal lies to the courts. The Commissioner will not stay a determination of the need for a permit pending court appeal except in unusual circumstances, but will participate in expediting any such appeal.

[42 FR 14334, Mar. 15, 1977, as amended at 54 FR 24891, June 12, 1989; 61 FR 14479, Apr. 2, 1996; 66 FR 56035, Nov. 6, 2001]

Sec. 108.6 Revocation of determination of need for permit.

(a) A permit shall be required only during such temporary period as is necessary to protect the public health.

(b) Whenever the Commissioner has reason to believe that a permit holder is in compliance with the mandatory requirements and conditions established in subpart B of this part and is likely to remain in compliance, he shall, on his own initiative or on the application of the permit holder, revoke both the determination of need for a permit and the permit that had been issued. If denied, the applicant shall, upon request, be afforded a hearing conducted in accordance with 108.5 (b) and (c) as soon as practicable. Such revocation is without prejudice to the initiation of further permit proceedings with respect to the same manufacturer, processor, or packer should later information again show the need for a permit.

Sec. 108.7 Issuance or denial of permit.

(a) After a determination and notification by the Commissioner in accordance with the provisions of 108.5 that a manufacturer, processor, or packer requires a permit, such manufacturer, processor, or packer may not thereafter introduce or deliver for introduction into interstate commerce any such food manufactured, processed, or packed by him unless he holds a permit issued by the Commissioner or obtains advance written approval of the Food and Drug Administration pursuant to 108.12(a).

(b) Any manufacturer, processor, or packer for whom the Commissioner has made a determination that a permit is necessary may apply to the Commissioner for the issuance of such a permit. The application shall contain such data and information as is necessary to show that all mandatory requirements and conditions for the manufacturer, processing or packing of a food for which regulations are established in subpart B of this part are met and, in particular, shall show that the deviations specified in the Commissioner's determination of the need for a permit have been corrected or suitable interim measures established. Within 10 working days after receipt of such application, (except that the Commissioner may extend such time an additional 10 working days where necessary), the Commissioner shall issue a permit, deny the permit, or offer the applicant a hearing conducted in accordance with 108.5 (b) and (c) as to whether the permit should be issued. The Commissioner shall issue such a permit to which shall be attached, in addition to the mandatory requirements and conditions of subpart B of this part, any additional requirements or conditions which may be necessary to protect the public health if he finds that all mandatory requirements and conditions of subpart B of this part are met or suitable interim measures are established.

(c) Denial of a permit constitutes final agency action from which appeal lies to the courts. The Commissioner will not stay such denial pending court appeal except in unusual circumstances, but will participate in expediting any such appeal.

Sec. 108.10 Suspension and reinstatement of permit.

(a) Whenever the Commissioner finds that a permit holder is not in compliance with the mandatory requirements and conditions established by the permit, he shall immediately suspend the permit and so inform the permit holder, with the reasons for the suspension.

(b) Upon application for reinstatement of a permit, the Commissioner shall, within 10 working days, reinstate the permit if he finds that the person is in compliance with the mandatory requirements and conditions established by the permit or deny the application.

(c) Any person whose permit has been suspended or whose application for reinstatement has been denied may request a hearing. The hearing shall be conducted by the Commissioner or his designee within 5 working days of receipt of the request at a location agreed upon by the objector and the Commissioner or, if an agreement cannot be reached, at a location designated by the Commissioner. The permit holder shall have the right to present witnesses on his own behalf and to cross-examine the Food and Drug Administration's witnesses.

(d) Within 5 working days after the hearing, and based on the evidence presented at the hearing, the Commissioner shall determine whether the permit shall be reinstated and shall so inform the permit holder, with the reasons for his decision.

(e) Denial of an application for reinstatement of a permit constitutes final agency action from which appeal lies to the courts. The Commissioner will not stay such denial pending court appeal except in unusual circumstances, but will participate in expediting any such appeal.

Sec. 108.12 Manufacturing, processing, or packing without a permit, or in violation of a permit.

(a) A manufacturer, processor, or packer may continue at his own risk to manufacture, process, or pack without a permit a food for which the Commissioner has determined that a permit is required. All food so manufactured, processed, or packed during such period without a permit shall be retained by the manufacturer, processor, or packer and may not be introduced or delivered for introduction into interstate commerce without the advance written approval of the Food and Drug Administration. Such approval may be granted only upon an adequate showing that such food is free from microorganisms of public health significance. The manufacturer, processor, or packer may provide to the Commissioner, for his consideration in making any such determination, an evaluation of the potential public health significance of such food by a competent authority in accordance with procedures recognized as being adequate to detect any potential hazard to public health. Within 20 working days after receipt of a written request for such written approval the Food and Drug Administration shall either issue such written approval or deny the request. If the request is denied, the applicant shall, upon request, be afforded a prompt hearing conducted in accordance with 108.5 (b) and (c).

(b) Except as provided in paragraph (a) of this section, no manufacturer, processor, or packer may introduce or deliver for introduction into interstate commerce without a permit or in violation of a permit a food for which the Commissioner has determined that a permit is required. Where a manufacturer, processor, or packer utilizes a consolidation warehouse or other storage facility under his control, interstate shipment of any such food from the point of production to that warehouse or storage facility shall not violate this paragraph, provided that no further introduction or delivery for introduction into interstate commerce is made from that consolidated warehouse or storage facility except as provided in paragraph (a) of this section.

Sec. 108.19 Establishment of requirements for exemption from section 404 of the act.

(a) Whenever the Commissioner finds after investigation that the distribution in interstate commerce of any class of food may, by reason of contamination with microorganisms during the manufacture, processing, or packing thereof in any locality, be injurious to health, and that such injurious nature cannot be adequately determined after such articles have entered interstate commerce, he shall promulgate regulations in Subpart B of this part establishing requirements and conditions governing the manufacture, processing, or packing of the food necessary to protect the public health. Such regulations may be proposed by the Commissioner on his own initiative or in response to a petition from any interested person pursuant to part 10 of this chapter.

(b) A manufacturer, processor, or packer of a food for which a regulation has been promulgated in subpart B of this part shall be exempt from the requirement for a permit only if he meets all of the mandatory requirements and conditions established in that regulation.

[42 FR 14334, Mar. 15, 1977, as amended at 42 FR 15673, Mar. 22, 1977]

Authority: 21 U.S.C. 342, 344, 371.
Source: 42 FR 14334, Mar. 15, 1977, unless otherwise noted.

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