• Decrease font size
  • Return font size to normal
  • Increase font size
U.S. Department of Health and Human Services

CFR - Code of Federal Regulations Title 21

  • Print
  • Share
  • E-mail
-

The information on this page is current as of April 1 2018.

For the most up-to-date version of CFR Title 21, go to the Electronic Code of Federal Regulations (eCFR).

New Search
Help | More About 21CFR
[Code of Federal Regulations]
[Title 21, Volume 2]
[Revised as of April 1, 2018]
[CITE: 21CFR117]





TITLE 21--FOOD AND DRUGS
CHAPTER I--FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION
DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES
SUBCHAPTER B--FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION
 
PART 117CURRENT GOOD MANUFACTURING PRACTICE, HAZARD ANALYSIS, AND RISK-BASED PREVENTIVE CONTROLS FOR HUMAN FOOD
 

Subpart A--General Provisions

Sec. 117.1 Applicability and status.

(a) The criteria and definitions in this part apply in determining whether a food is:

(1) Adulterated within the meaning of:

(i) Section 402(a)(3) of the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act in that the food has been manufactured under such conditions that it is unfit for food; or

(ii) Section 402(a)(4) of the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act in that the food has been prepared, packed, or held under insanitary conditions whereby it may have become contaminated with filth, or whereby it may have been rendered injurious to health; and

(2) In violation of section 361 of the Public Health Service Act (42 U.S.C. 264).

(b) The operation of a facility that manufactures, processes, packs, or holds food for sale in the United States if the owner, operator, or agent in charge of such facility is required to comply with, and is not in compliance with, section 418 of the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act or subpart C, D, E, F, or G of this part is a prohibited act under section 301(uu) of the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act.

(c) Food covered by specific current good manufacturing practice regulations also is subject to the requirements of those regulations.

[80 FR 56145, Sept. 17, 2015, as amended at 81 FR 3715, Jan. 22, 2016]

Sec. 117.3 Definitions.

The definitions and interpretations of terms in section 201 of the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act apply to such terms when used in this part. The following definitions also apply:

Acid foods or acidified foods means foods that have an equilibrium pH of 4.6 or below.

Adequate means that which is needed to accomplish the intended purpose in keeping with good public health practice.

Affiliate means any facility that controls, is controlled by, or is under common control with another facility.

Allergen cross-contact means the unintentional incorporation of a food allergen into a food.

Audit means the systematic, independent, and documented examination (through observation, investigation, records review, discussions with employees of the audited entity, and, as appropriate, sampling and laboratory analysis) to assess an audited entity's food safety processes and procedures.

Batter means a semifluid substance, usually composed of flour and other ingredients, into which principal components of food are dipped or with which they are coated, or which may be used directly to form bakery foods.

Blanching, except for tree nuts and peanuts, means a prepackaging heat treatment of foodstuffs for an adequate time and at an adequate temperature to partially or completely inactivate the naturally occurring enzymes and to effect other physical or biochemical changes in the food.

Calendar day means every day shown on the calendar.

Correction means an action to identify and correct a problem that occurred during the production of food, without other actions associated with a corrective action procedure (such as actions to reduce the likelihood that the problem will recur, evaluate all affected food for safety, and prevent affected food from entering commerce).

Critical control point means a point, step, or procedure in a food process at which control can be applied and is essential to prevent or eliminate a food safety hazard or reduce such hazard to an acceptable level.

Defect action level means a level of a non-hazardous, naturally occurring, unavoidable defect at which FDA may regard a food product "adulterated" and subject to enforcement action under section 402(a)(3) of the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act.

Environmental pathogen means a pathogen capable of surviving and persisting within the manufacturing, processing, packing, or holding environment such that food may be contaminated and may result in foodborne illness if that food is consumed without treatment to significantly minimize the environmental pathogen. Examples of environmental pathogens for the purposes of this part include Listeria monocytogenes and Salmonella spp. but do not include the spores of pathogenic sporeforming bacteria.

Facility means a domestic facility or a foreign facility that is required to register under section 415 of the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act, in accordance with the requirements of part 1, subpart H of this chapter.

Farm means farm as defined in 1.227 of this chapter.

FDA means the Food and Drug Administration.

Food means food as defined in section 201(f) of the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act and includes raw materials and ingredients.

Food allergen means a major food allergen as defined in section 201(qq) of the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act.

Food-contact surfaces are those surfaces that contact human food and those surfaces from which drainage, or other transfer, onto the food or onto surfaces that contact the food ordinarily occurs during the normal course of operations. "Food-contact surfaces" includes utensils and food-contact surfaces of equipment.

Full-time equivalent employee is a term used to represent the number of employees of a business entity for the purpose of determining whether the business qualifies for the small business exemption. The number of full-time equivalent employees is determined by dividing the total number of hours of salary or wages paid directly to employees of the business entity and of all of its affiliates and subsidiaries by the number of hours of work in 1 year, 2,080 hours (i.e., 40 hours * 52 weeks). If the result is not a whole number, round down to the next lowest whole number.

Harvesting applies to farms and farm mixed-type facilities and means activities that are traditionally performed on farms for the purpose of removing raw agricultural commodities from the place they were grown or raised and preparing them for use as food. Harvesting is limited to activities performed on raw agricultural commodities, or on processed foods created by drying/dehydrating a raw agricultural commodity without additional manufacturing/processing, on a farm. Harvesting does not include activities that transform a raw agricultural commodity into a processed food as defined in section 201(gg) of the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act. Examples of harvesting include cutting (or otherwise separating) the edible portion of the raw agricultural commodity from the crop plant and removing or trimming part of the raw agricultural commodity (e.g., foliage, husks, roots or stems). Examples of harvesting also include cooling, field coring, filtering, gathering, hulling, shelling, sifting, threshing, trimming of outer leaves of, and washing raw agricultural commodities grown on a farm.

Hazard means any biological, chemical (including radiological), or physical agent that has the potential to cause illness or injury.

Hazard requiring a preventive control means a known or reasonably foreseeable hazard for which a person knowledgeable about the safe manufacturing, processing, packing, or holding of food would, based on the outcome of a hazard analysis (which includes an assessment of the severity of the illness or injury if the hazard were to occur and the probability that the hazard will occur in the absence of preventive controls), establish one or more preventive controls to significantly minimize or prevent the hazard in a food and components to manage those controls (such as monitoring, corrections or corrective actions, verification, and records) as appropriate to the food, the facility, and the nature of the preventive control and its role in the facility's food safety system.

Holding means storage of food and also includes activities performed incidental to storage of a food (e.g., activities performed for the safe or effective storage of that food, such as fumigating food during storage, and drying/dehydrating raw agricultural commodities when the drying/dehydrating does not create a distinct commodity (such as drying/dehydrating hay or alfalfa)). Holding also includes activities performed as a practical necessity for the distribution of that food (such as blending of the same raw agricultural commodity and breaking down pallets), but does not include activities that transform a raw agricultural commodity into a processed food as defined in section 201(gg) of the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act. Holding facilities could include warehouses, cold storage facilities, storage silos, grain elevators, and liquid storage tanks.

Known or reasonably foreseeable hazard means a biological, chemical (including radiological), or physical hazard that is known to be, or has the potential to be, associated with the facility or the food.

Lot means the food produced during a period of time and identified by an establishment's specific code.

Manufacturing/processing means making food from one or more ingredients, or synthesizing, preparing, treating, modifying or manipulating food, including food crops or ingredients. Examples of manufacturing/processing activities include: Baking, boiling, bottling, canning, cooking, cooling, cutting, distilling, drying/dehydrating raw agricultural commodities to create a distinct commodity (such as drying/dehydrating grapes to produce raisins), evaporating, eviscerating, extracting juice, formulating, freezing, grinding, homogenizing, irradiating, labeling, milling, mixing, packaging (including modified atmosphere packaging), pasteurizing, peeling, rendering, treating to manipulate ripening, trimming, washing, or waxing. For farms and farm mixed-type facilities, manufacturing/processing does not include activities that are part of harvesting, packing, or holding.

Microorganisms means yeasts, molds, bacteria, viruses, protozoa, and microscopic parasites and includes species that are pathogens. The term "undesirable microorganisms" includes those microorganisms that are pathogens, that subject food to decomposition, that indicate that food is contaminated with filth, or that otherwise may cause food to be adulterated.

Mixed-type facility means an establishment that engages in both activities that are exempt from registration under section 415 of the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act and activities that require the establishment to be registered. An example of such a facility is a "farm mixed-type facility," which is an establishment that is a farm, but also conducts activities outside the farm definition that require the establishment to be registered.

Monitor means to conduct a planned sequence of observations or measurements to assess whether control measures are operating as intended.

Packing means placing food into a container other than packaging the food and also includes re-packing and activities performed incidental to packing or re-packing a food (e.g., activities performed for the safe or effective packing or re-packing of that food (such as sorting, culling, grading, and weighing or conveying incidental to packing or re-packing)), but does not include activities that transform a raw agricultural commodity into a processed food as defined in section 201(gg) of the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act.

Pathogen means a microorganism of public health significance.

Pest refers to any objectionable animals or insects including birds, rodents, flies, and larvae.

Plant means the building or structure or parts thereof, used for or in connection with the manufacturing, processing, packing, or holding of human food.

Preventive controls means those risk-based, reasonably appropriate procedures, practices, and processes that a person knowledgeable about the safe manufacturing, processing, packing, or holding of food would employ to significantly minimize or prevent the hazards identified under the hazard analysis that are consistent with the current scientific understanding of safe food manufacturing, processing, packing, or holding at the time of the analysis.

Preventive controls qualified individual means a qualified individual who has successfully completed training in the development and application of risk-based preventive controls at least equivalent to that received under a standardized curriculum recognized as adequate by FDA or is otherwise qualified through job experience to develop and apply a food safety system.

Qualified auditor means a person who is a qualified individual as defined in this part and has technical expertise obtained through education, training, or experience (or a combination thereof) necessary to perform the auditing function as required by 117.180(c)(2). Examples of potential qualified auditors include:

(1) A government employee, including a foreign government employee; and

(2) An audit agent of a certification body that is accredited in accordance with regulations in part 1, subpart M of this chapter.

Qualified end-user, with respect to a food, means the consumer of the food (where the term consumer does not include a business); or a restaurant or retail food establishment (as those terms are defined in 1.227 of this chapter) that:

(1) Is located:

(i) In the same State or the same Indian reservation as the qualified facility that sold the food to such restaurant or establishment; or

(ii) Not more than 275 miles from such facility; and

(2) Is purchasing the food for sale directly to consumers at such restaurant or retail food establishment.

Qualified facility means (when including the sales by any subsidiary; affiliate; or subsidiaries or affiliates, collectively, of any entity of which the facility is a subsidiary or affiliate) a facility that is a very small business as defined in this part, or a facility to which both of the following apply:

(1) During the 3-year period preceding the applicable calendar year, the average annual monetary value of the food manufactured, processed, packed or held at such facility that is sold directly to qualified end-users (as defined in this part) during such period exceeded the average annual monetary value of the food sold by such facility to all other purchasers; and

(2) The average annual monetary value of all food sold during the 3-year period preceding the applicable calendar year was less than $500,000, adjusted for inflation.

Qualified facility exemption means an exemption applicable to a qualified facility under 117.5(a).

Qualified individual means a person who has the education, training, or experience (or a combination thereof) necessary to manufacture, process, pack, or hold clean and safe food as appropriate to the individual's assigned duties. A qualified individual may be, but is not required to be, an employee of the establishment.

Quality control operation means a planned and systematic procedure for taking all actions necessary to prevent food from being adulterated.

Raw agricultural commodity has the meaning given in section 201(r) of the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act.

Ready-to-eat food (RTE food) means any food that is normally eaten in its raw state or any other food, including a processed food, for which it is reasonably foreseeable that the food will be eaten without further processing that would significantly minimize biological hazards.

Receiving facility means a facility that is subject to subparts C and G of this part and that manufactures/processes a raw material or other ingredient that it receives from a supplier.

Rework means clean, unadulterated food that has been removed from processing for reasons other than insanitary conditions or that has been successfully reconditioned by reprocessing and that is suitable for use as food.

Safe-moisture level is a level of moisture low enough to prevent the growth of undesirable microorganisms in the finished product under the intended conditions of manufacturing, processing, packing, and holding. The safe moisture level for a food is related to its water activity (aw). An aw will be considered safe for a food if adequate data are available that demonstrate that the food at or below the given aw will not support the growth of undesirable microorganisms.

Sanitize means to adequately treat cleaned surfaces by a process that is effective in destroying vegetative cells of pathogens, and in substantially reducing numbers of other undesirable microorganisms, but without adversely affecting the product or its safety for the consumer.

Significantly minimize means to reduce to an acceptable level, including to eliminate.

Small business means, for purposes of this part, a business (including any subsidiaries and affiliates) employing fewer than 500 full-time equivalent employees.

Subsidiary means any company which is owned or controlled directly or indirectly by another company.

Supplier means the establishment that manufactures/processes the food, raises the animal, or grows the food that is provided to a receiving facility without further manufacturing/processing by another establishment, except for further manufacturing/processing that consists solely of the addition of labeling or similar activity of a de minimis nature.

Supply-chain-applied control means a preventive control for a hazard in a raw material or other ingredient when the hazard in the raw material or other ingredient is controlled before its receipt.

Unexposed packaged food means packaged food that is not exposed to the environment.

Validation means obtaining and evaluating scientific and technical evidence that a control measure, combination of control measures, or the food safety plan as a whole, when properly implemented, is capable of effectively controlling the identified hazards.

Verification means the application of methods, procedures, tests and other evaluations, in addition to monitoring, to determine whether a control measure or combination of control measures is or has been operating as intended and to establish the validity of the food safety plan.

Very small business means, for purposes of this part, a business (including any subsidiaries and affiliates) averaging less than $1,000,000, adjusted for inflation, per year, during the 3-year period preceding the applicable calendar year in sales of human food plus the market value of human food manufactured, processed, packed, or held without sale (e.g., held for a fee).

Water activity (aw) is a measure of the free moisture in a food and is the quotient of the water vapor pressure of the substance divided by the vapor pressure of pure water at the same temperature.

Written procedures for receiving raw materials and other ingredients means written procedures to ensure that raw materials and other ingredients are received only from suppliers approved by the receiving facility (or, when necessary and appropriate, on a temporary basis from unapproved suppliers whose raw materials or other ingredients are subjected to adequate verification activities before acceptance for use).

You means, for purposes of this part, the owner, operator, or agent in charge of a facility.

[80 FR 56145, Sept. 17, 2015, as amended at 81 FR 3715, Jan. 22, 2016]

Sec. 117.4 Qualifications of individuals who manufacture, process, pack, or hold food.

(a) Applicability. (1) The management of an establishment must ensure that all individuals who manufacture, process, pack, or hold food subject to subparts B and F of this part are qualified to perform their assigned duties.

(2) The owner, operator, or agent in charge of a facility must ensure that all individuals who manufacture, process, pack, or hold food subject to subpart C, D, E, F, or G of this part are qualified to perform their assigned duties.

(b) Qualifications of all individuals engaged in manufacturing, processing, packing, or holding food. Each individual engaged in manufacturing, processing, packing, or holding food (including temporary and seasonal personnel) or in the supervision thereof must:

(1) Be a qualified individual as that term is defined in 117.3--i.e., have the education, training, or experience (or a combination thereof) necessary to manufacture, process, pack, or hold clean and safe food as appropriate to the individual's assigned duties; and

(2) Receive training in the principles of food hygiene and food safety, including the importance of employee health and personal hygiene, as appropriate to the food, the facility and the individual's assigned duties.

(c) Additional qualifications of supervisory personnel. Responsibility for ensuring compliance by individuals with the requirements of this part must be clearly assigned to supervisory personnel who have the education, training, or experience (or a combination thereof) necessary to supervise the production of clean and safe food.

(d) Records. Records that document training required by paragraph (b)(2) of this section must be established and maintained.

Sec. 117.5 Exemptions.

(a) Except as provided by subpart E of this part, subparts C and G of this part do not apply to a qualified facility. Qualified facilities are subject to the modified requirements in 117.201.

(b) Subparts C and G of this part do not apply with respect to activities that are subject to part 123 of this chapter (Fish and Fishery Products) at a facility if you are required to comply with, and are in compliance with, part 123 of this chapter with respect to such activities.

(c) Subparts C and G of this part do not apply with respect to activities that are subject to part 120 of this chapter (Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Point (HACCP) Systems) at a facility if you are required to comply with, and are in compliance with, part 120 of this chapter with respect to such activities.

(d)(1) Subparts C and G of this part do not apply with respect to activities that are subject to part 113 of this chapter (Thermally Processed Low-Acid Foods Packaged in Hermetically Sealed Containers) at a facility if you are required to comply with, and are in compliance with, part 113 of this chapter with respect to such activities.

(2) The exemption in paragraph (d)(1) of this section is applicable only with respect to the microbiological hazards that are regulated under part 113 of this chapter.

(e) Subparts C and G do not apply to any facility with regard to the manufacturing, processing, packaging, or holding of a dietary supplement that is in compliance with the requirements of part 111 of this chapter (Current Good Manufacturing Practice in Manufacturing, Packaging, Labeling, or Holding Operations for Dietary Supplements) and section 761 of the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act (Serious Adverse Event Reporting for Dietary Supplements).

(f) Subparts C and G of this part do not apply to activities of a facility that are subject to section 419 of the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act (Standards for Produce Safety).

(g)(1) The exemption in paragraph (g)(3) of this section applies to packing or holding of processed foods on a farm mixed-type facility, except for processed foods produced by drying/dehydrating raw agricultural commodities to create a distinct commodity (such as drying/dehydrating grapes to produce raisins, and drying/dehydrating fresh herbs to produce dried herbs), and packaging and labeling such commodities, without additional manufacturing/processing (such as chopping and slicing), the packing and holding of which are within the "farm" definition in 1.227 of this chapter. Activities that are within the "farm" definition, when conducted on a farm mixed-type facility, are not subject to the requirements of subparts C and G of this part and therefore do not need to be specified in the exemption.

(2) For the purposes of paragraphs (g)(3) and (h)(3) of this section, the following terms describe the foods associated with the activity/food combinations. Several foods that are fruits or vegetables are separately considered for the purposes of these activity/food combinations (i.e., coffee beans, cocoa beans, fresh herbs, peanuts, sugarcane, sugar beets, tree nuts, seeds for direct consumption) to appropriately address specific hazards associated with these foods and/or processing activities conducted on these foods.

(i) Dried/dehydrated fruit and vegetable products includes only those processed food products such as raisins and dried legumes made without additional manufacturing/processing beyond drying/dehydrating, packaging, and/or labeling.

(ii) Other fruit and vegetable products includes those processed food products that have undergone one or more of the following processes: acidification, boiling, canning, coating with things other than wax/oil/resin, cooking, cutting, chopping, grinding, peeling, shredding, slicing, or trimming. Examples include flours made from legumes (such as chickpea flour), pickles, and snack chips made from potatoes or plantains. Examples also include dried fruit and vegetable products made with additional manufacturing/processing (such as dried apple slices; pitted, dried plums, cherries, and apricots; and sulfited raisins). This category does not include dried/dehydrated fruit and vegetable products made without additional manufacturing/processing as described in paragraph (g)(2)(i) of this section. This category also does not include products that require time/temperature control for safety (such as fresh-cut fruits and vegetables).

(iii) Peanut and tree nut products includes processed food products such as roasted peanuts and tree nuts, seasoned peanuts and tree nuts, and peanut and tree nut flours.

(iv) Processed seeds for direct consumption include processed food products such as roasted pumpkin seeds, roasted sunflower seeds, and roasted flax seeds.

(v) Dried/dehydrated herb and spice products includes only processed food products such as dried intact herbs made without additional manufacturing/processing beyond drying/dehydrating, packaging, and/or labeling.

(vi) Other herb and spice products includes those processed food products such as chopped fresh herbs, chopped or ground dried herbs (including tea), herbal extracts (e.g., essential oils, extracts containing more than 20 percent ethanol, extracts containing more than 35 percent glycerin), dried herb- or spice-infused honey, and dried herb- or spice-infused oils and/or vinegars. This category does not include dried/dehydrated herb and spice products made without additional manufacturing/processing beyond drying/dehydrating, packaging, and/or labeling as described in paragraph (g)(2)(v) of this section. This category also does not include products that require time/temperature control for safety, such as fresh herb-infused oils.

(vii) Grains include barley, dent- or flint-corn, sorghum, oats, rice, rye, wheat, amaranth, quinoa, buckwheat and oilseeds for oil extraction (such as cotton seed, flax seed, rapeseed, soybeans, and sunflower seed).

(viii) Milled grain products include processed food products such as flour, bran, and corn meal.

(ix) Baked goods include processed food products such as breads, brownies, cakes, cookies, and crackers. This category does not include products that require time/temperature control for safety, such as cream-filled pastries.

(x) Other grain products include processed food products such as dried cereal, dried pasta, oat flakes, and popcorn. This category does not include milled grain products as described in paragraph (g)(2)(viii) of this section or baked goods as described in paragraph (g)(2)(ix) of this section.

(3) Subparts C and G of this part do not apply to on-farm packing or holding of food by a small or very small business, and 117.201 does not apply to on-farm packing or holding of food by a very small business, if the only packing and holding activities subject to section 418 of the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act that the business conducts are the following low-risk packing or holding activity/food combinations--i.e., packing (or re-packing) (including weighing or conveying incidental to packing or re-packing); sorting, culling, or grading incidental to packing or storing; and storing (ambient, cold and controlled atmosphere) of:

(i) Baked goods (e.g., bread and cookies);

(ii) Candy (e.g., hard candy, fudge, maple candy, maple cream, nut brittles, taffy, and toffee);

(iii) Cocoa beans (roasted);

(iv) Cocoa products;

(v) Coffee beans (roasted);

(vi) Game meat jerky;

(vii) Gums, latexes, and resins that are processed foods;

(viii) Honey (pasteurized);

(ix) Jams, jellies, and preserves;

(x) Milled grain products (e.g., flour, bran, and corn meal);

(xi) Molasses and treacle;

(xii) Oils (e.g., olive oil and sunflower seed oil);

(xiii) Other fruit and vegetable products (e.g., flours made from legumes; pitted, dried fruits; sliced, dried apples; snack chips);

(xiv) Other grain products (e.g., dried pasta, oat flakes, and popcorn);

(xv) Other herb and spice products (e.g., chopped or ground dried herbs, herbal extracts);

(xvi) Peanut and tree nut products (e.g., roasted peanuts and tree nut flours);

(xvii) Processed seeds for direct consumption (e.g., roasted pumpkin seeds);

(xviii) Soft drinks and carbonated water;

(xix) Sugar;

(xx) Syrups (e.g., maple syrup and agave syrup);

(xxi) Trail mix and granola;

(xxii) Vinegar; and

(xxiii) Any other processed food that does not require time/temperature control for safety (e..g., vitamins, minerals, and dietary ingredients (e.g., bone meal) in powdered, granular, or other solid form).

(h)(1) The exemption in paragraph (h)(3) of this section applies to manufacturing/processing of foods on a farm mixed-type facility, except for manufacturing/processing that is within the "farm" definition in 1.227 of this chapter. Drying/dehydrating raw agricultural commodities to create a distinct commodity (such as drying/dehydrating grapes to produce raisins, and drying/dehydrating fresh herbs to produce dried herbs), and packaging and labeling such commodities, without additional manufacturing/processing (such as chopping and slicing), are within the "farm" definition in 1.227 of this chapter. In addition, treatment to manipulate ripening of raw agricultural commodities (such as by treating produce with ethylene gas), and packaging and labeling the treated raw agricultural commodities, without additional manufacturing/processing, is within the "farm" definition. In addition, coating intact fruits and vegetables with wax, oil, or resin used for the purpose of storage or transportation is within the "farm" definition. Activities that are within the "farm" definition, when conducted on a farm mixed-type facility, are not subject to the requirements of subparts C and G of this part and therefore do not need to be specified in the exemption.

(2) The terms in paragraph (g)(2) of this section describe certain foods associated with the activity/food combinations in paragraph (h)(3) of this section.

(3) Subparts C and G of this part do not apply to on-farm manufacturing/processing activities conducted by a small or very small business for distribution into commerce, and 117.201 does not apply to on-farm manufacturing/processing activities conducted by a very small business for distribution into commerce, if the only manufacturing/processing activities subject to section 418 of the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act that the business conducts are the following low-risk manufacturing/processing activity/food combinations:

(i) Boiling gums, latexes, and resins;

(ii) Chopping, coring, cutting, peeling, pitting, shredding, and slicing acid fruits and vegetables that have a pH less than 4.2 (e.g., cutting lemons and limes), baked goods (e.g., slicing bread), dried/dehydrated fruit and vegetable products (e.g., pitting dried plums), dried herbs and other spices (e.g., chopping intact, dried basil), game meat jerky, gums/latexes/resins, other grain products (e.g., shredding dried cereal), peanuts and tree nuts, and peanut and tree nut products (e.g., chopping roasted peanuts);

(iii) Coating dried/dehydrated fruit and vegetable products (e.g., coating raisins with chocolate), other fruit and vegetable products except for non-dried, non-intact fruits and vegetables (e.g., coating dried plum pieces, dried pitted cherries, and dried pitted apricots with chocolate are low-risk activity/food combinations but coating apples on a stick with caramel is not a low-risk activity/food combination), other grain products (e.g., adding caramel to popcorn or adding seasonings to popcorn provided that the seasonings have been treated to significantly minimize pathogens, peanuts and tree nuts (e.g., adding seasonings provided that the seasonings have been treated to significantly minimize pathogens), and peanut and tree nut products (e.g., adding seasonings provided that the seasonings have been treated to significantly minimize pathogens));

(iv) Drying/dehydrating (that includes additional manufacturing or is performed on processed foods) other fruit and vegetable products with pH less than 4.2 (e.g., drying cut fruit and vegetables with pH less than 4.2), and other herb and spice products (e.g., drying chopped fresh herbs, including tea);

(v) Extracting (including by pressing, by distilling, and by solvent extraction) dried/dehydrated herb and spice products (e.g., dried mint), fresh herbs (e.g., fresh mint), fruits and vegetables (e.g., olives, avocados), grains (e.g., oilseeds), and other herb and spice products (e.g., chopped fresh mint, chopped dried mint);

(vi) Freezing acid fruits and vegetables with pH less than 4.2 and other fruit and vegetable products with pH less than 4.2 (e.g., cut fruits and vegetables);

(vii) Grinding/cracking/crushing/milling baked goods (e.g., crackers), cocoa beans (roasted), coffee beans (roasted), dried/dehydrated fruit and vegetable products (e.g., raisins and dried legumes), dried/dehydrated herb and spice products (e.g., intact dried basil), grains (e.g., oats, rice, rye, wheat), other fruit and vegetable products (e.g., dried, pitted dates), other grain products (e.g., dried cereal), other herb and spice products (e.g., chopped dried herbs), peanuts and tree nuts, and peanut and tree nut products (e.g., roasted peanuts);

(viii) Labeling baked goods that do not contain food allergens, candy that does not contain food allergens, cocoa beans (roasted), cocoa products that do not contain food allergens), coffee beans (roasted), game meat jerky, gums/latexes/resins that are processed foods, honey (pasteurized), jams/jellies/preserves, milled grain products that do not contain food allergens (e.g., corn meal) or that are single-ingredient foods (e.g., wheat flour, wheat bran), molasses and treacle, oils, other fruit and vegetable products that do not contain food allergens (e.g., snack chips made from potatoes or plantains), other grain products that do not contain food allergens (e.g., popcorn), other herb and spice products (e.g., chopped or ground dried herbs), peanut or tree nut products, (provided that they are single-ingredient, or are in forms in which the consumer can reasonably be expected to recognize the food allergen(s) without label declaration, or both (e.g., roasted or seasoned whole nuts, single-ingredient peanut or tree nut flours)), processed seeds for direct consumption, soft drinks and carbonated water, sugar, syrups, trail mix and granola (other than those containing milk chocolate and provided that peanuts and/or tree nuts are in forms in which the consumer can reasonably be expected to recognize the food allergen(s) without label declaration), vinegar, and any other processed food that does not require time/temperature control for safety and that does not contain food allergens (e.g., vitamins, minerals, and dietary ingredients (e.g., bone meal) in powdered, granular, or other solid form);

(ix) Making baked goods from milled grain products (e.g., breads and cookies);

(x) Making candy from peanuts and tree nuts (e.g., nut brittles), sugar/syrups (e.g., taffy, toffee), and saps (e.g., maple candy, maple cream);

(xi) Making cocoa products from roasted cocoa beans;

(xii) Making dried pasta from grains;

(xiii) Making jams, jellies, and preserves from acid fruits and vegetables with a pH of 4.6 or below;

(xiv) Making molasses and treacle from sugar beets and sugarcane;

(xv) Making oat flakes from grains;

(xvi) Making popcorn from grains;

(xvii) Making snack chips from fruits and vegetables (e.g., making plantain and potato chips);

(xviii) Making soft drinks and carbonated water from sugar, syrups, and water;

(xix) Making sugars and syrups from fruits and vegetables (e.g., dates), grains (e.g., rice, sorghum), other grain products (e.g., malted grains such as barley), saps (e.g., agave, birch, maple, palm), sugar beets, and sugarcane;

(xx) Making trail mix and granola from cocoa products (e.g., chocolate), dried/dehydrated fruit and vegetable products (e.g., raisins), other fruit and vegetable products (e.g., chopped dried fruits), other grain products (e.g., oat flakes), peanut and tree nut products, and processed seeds for direct consumption, provided that peanuts, tree nuts, and processed seeds are treated to significantly minimize pathogens;

(xxi) Making vinegar from fruits and vegetables, other fruit and vegetable products (e.g., fruit wines, apple cider), and other grain products (e.g., malt);

(xxii) Mixing baked goods (e.g., types of cookies), candy (e.g., varieties of taffy), cocoa beans (roasted), coffee beans (roasted), dried/dehydrated fruit and vegetable products (e.g., dried blueberries, dried currants, and raisins), dried/dehydrated herb and spice products (e.g., dried, intact basil and dried, intact oregano), honey (pasteurized), milled grain products (e.g., flour, bran, and corn meal), other fruit and vegetable products (e.g., dried, sliced apples and dried, sliced peaches), other grain products (e.g., different types of dried pasta), other herb and spice products (e.g., chopped or ground dried herbs, dried herb- or spice-infused honey, and dried herb- or spice-infused oils and/or vinegars), peanut and tree nut products, sugar, syrups, vinegar, and any other processed food that does not require time/temperature control for safety (e.g., vitamins, minerals, and dietary ingredients (e.g., bone meal) in powdered, granular, or other solid form);

(xxiii) Packaging baked goods (e.g., bread and cookies), candy, cocoa beans (roasted), cocoa products, coffee beans (roasted), game meat jerky, gums/latexes/resins that are processed foods, honey (pasteurized), jams/jellies/preserves, milled grain products (e.g., flour, bran, corn meal), molasses and treacle, oils, other fruit and vegetable products (e.g., pitted, dried fruits; sliced, dried apples; snack chips), other grain products (e.g., popcorn), other herb and spice products (e.g., chopped or ground dried herbs), peanut and tree nut products, processed seeds for direct consumption, soft drinks and carbonated water, sugar, syrups, trail mix and granola, vinegar, and any other processed food that does not require time/temperature control for safety (e.g., vitamins, minerals, and dietary ingredients (e.g., bone meal) in powdered, granular, or other solid form);

(xxiv) Pasteurizing honey;

(xxv) Roasting and toasting baked goods (e.g., toasting bread for croutons);

(xxvi) Salting other grain products (e.g., soy nuts), peanut and tree nut products, and processed seeds for direct consumption; and

(xxvii) Sifting milled grain products (e.g., flour, bran, corn meal), other fruit and vegetable products (e.g., chickpea flour), and peanut and tree nut products (e.g., peanut flour, almond flour).

(i)(1) Subparts C and G of this part do not apply with respect to alcoholic beverages at a facility that meets the following two conditions:

(i) Under the Federal Alcohol Administration Act (27 U.S.C. 201 et seq. ) or chapter 51 of subtitle E of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986 (26 U.S.C. 5001 et seq. ) the facility is required to obtain a permit from, register with, or obtain approval of a notice or application from the Secretary of the Treasury as a condition of doing business in the United States, or is a foreign facility of a type that would require such a permit, registration, or approval if it were a domestic facility; and

(ii) Under section 415 of the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act the facility is required to register as a facility because it is engaged in manufacturing, processing, packing, or holding one or more alcoholic beverages.

(2) Subparts C and G of this part do not apply with respect to food that is not an alcoholic beverage at a facility described in paragraph (i)(1) of this section, provided such food:

(i) Is in prepackaged form that prevents any direct human contact with such food; and

(ii) Constitutes not more than 5 percent of the overall sales of the facility, as determined by the Secretary of the Treasury.

(j) Subparts C and G of this part do not apply to facilities that are solely engaged in the storage of raw agricultural commodities (other than fruits and vegetables) intended for further distribution or processing.

(k)(1) Except as provided by paragraph (k)(2) of this section, subpart B of this part does not apply to any of the following:

(i) "Farms" (as defined in 1.227 of this chapter);

(ii) Fishing vessels that are not subject to the registration requirements of part 1, subpart H of this chapter in accordance with 1.226(f) of this chapter;

(iii) Establishments solely engaged in the holding and/or transportation of one or more raw agricultural commodities;

(iv) Activities of "farm mixed-type facilities" (as defined in 1.227 of this chapter) that fall within the definition of "farm"; or

(v) Establishments solely engaged in hulling, shelling, drying, packing, and/or holding nuts (without additional manufacturing/processing, such as roasting nuts).

(2) If a "farm" or "farm mixed-type facility" dries/dehydrates raw agricultural commodities that are produce as defined in part 112 of this chapter to create a distinct commodity, subpart B of this part applies to the packaging, packing, and holding of the dried commodities. Compliance with this requirement may be achieved by complying with subpart B of this part or with the applicable requirements for packing and holding in part 112 of this chapter.

[80 FR 56145, Sept. 17, 2015, as amended at 81 FR 3716, Jan. 22, 2016]

Sec. 117.7 Applicability of subparts C, D, and G of this part to a facility solely engaged in the storage of unexposed packaged food.

(a) Applicability of subparts C and G. Subparts C and G of this part do not apply to a facility solely engaged in the storage of unexposed packaged food.

(b) Applicability of subpart D. A facility solely engaged in the storage of unexposed packaged food, including unexposed packaged food that requires time/temperature control to significantly minimize or prevent the growth of, or toxin production by, pathogens is subject to the modified requirements in 117.206 for any unexposed packaged food that requires time/temperature control to significantly minimize or prevent the growth of, or toxin production by, pathogens.

Sec. 117.8 Applicability of subpart B of this part to the off-farm packing and holding of raw agricultural commodities.

Except as provided by 117.5(k)(1), subpart B of this part applies to the off-farm packaging, packing, and holding of raw agricultural commodities. Compliance with this requirement for raw agricultural commodities that are produce as defined in part 112 of this chapter may be achieved by complying with subpart B of this part or with the applicable requirements for packing and holding in part 112 of this chapter.

[81 FR 3956, Jan. 25, 2016]

Sec. 117.9 Records required for this subpart.

(a) Records that document training required by 117.4(b)(2) must be established and maintained.

(b) The records that must be established and maintained are subject to the requirements of subpart F of this part.

Authority: 21 U.S.C. 331, 342, 343, 350d note, 350g, 350g note, 371, 374; 42 U.S.C. 243, 264, 271.
Source: 80 FR 56145, Sept. 17, 2015, unless otherwise noted.

-
-