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CFR - Code of Federal Regulations Title 21

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For the most up-to-date version of CFR Title 21, go to the Electronic Code of Federal Regulations (eCFR).

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Help | More About 21CFR
[Code of Federal Regulations]
[Title 21, Volume 3]
[CITE: 21CFR172]


Subpart F - Flavoring Agents and Related Substances

Sec. 172.510 Natural flavoring substances and natural substances used in conjunction with flavors.

Natural flavoring substances and natural adjuvants may be safely used in food in accordance with the following conditions.

(a) They are used in the minimum quantity required to produce their intended physical or technical effect and in accordance with all the principles of good manufacturing practice.

(b) In the appropriate forms (plant parts, fluid and solid extracts, concentrates, absolutes, oils, gums, balsams, resins, oleoresins, waxes, and distillates) they consist of one or more of the following, used alone or in combination with flavoring substances and adjuvants generally recognized as safe in food, previously sanctioned for such use, or regulated in any section of this part.

Common name Scientific name Limitations
AloeAloe perryi Baker, A. barbadensis Mill., A. ferox Mill., and hybrids of this sp. with A. africana Mill. and A. spicata Baker
Althea root and flowersAlthea officinalis L
Amyris (West Indian sandalwood)Amyris balsamifera L
Angola weedRoccella fuciformis AchIn alcoholic beverages only
Arnica flowersArnica montana L., A. fulgens Pursh, A. sororia Greene, or A. cordifolia Hooker Do.
Artemisia (wormwood)Artemisia sppFinished food thujone free 1
Artichoke leavesCynara scolymus LIn alcoholic beverages only
Benzoin resinStyrax benzoin Dryander, S. paralleloneurus Perkins, S. tonkinensis (Pierre) Craib ex Hartwich, or other spp. of the Section Anthostyrax of the genus Styrax
Blackberry barkRubus, Section Eubatus
Boldus (boldo) leavesPeumus boldus Mol Do.
Boronia flowersBoronia megastigma Nees
Bryonia rootBryonia alba L., or B. diocia Jacq Do.
Buchu leavesBarosma betulina Bartl. et Wendl., B. crenulata (L.) Hook. or B. serratifolia Willd
Buckbean leavesMenyanthes trifoliata L Do.
CajeputMelaleuca leucadendron L. and other Melaleuca spp
Calumba rootJateorhiza palmata (Lam.) Miers Do.
Camphor treeCinnamomum camphora (L.) Nees et EbermSafrole free
Cascara sagradaRhamnus purshiana DC
Cassie flowersAcacia farnesiana (L.) Willd
Castor oilRicinus communis L
Catechu, blackAcacia catechu Willd
Cedar, white (aborvitae), leaves and twigsThuja occidentalis LFinished food thujone free 1
CentuaryCentaurium umbellatum GilibIn alcoholic beverages only
Cherry pitsPrunus avium L. or P. cerasus LNot to exceed 25 p.p.m. prussic acid
Cherry-laurel leavesPrunus laurocerasus L Do.
Chestnut leavesCastanea dentata (Marsh.) Borkh
ChirataSwertia chirata Buch.-HamIn alcoholic beverages only
Cinchona, red, barkCinchona succirubra Pav. or its hybridsIn beverages only; not more than 83 p.p.m. total cinchona alkaloids in finished beverage
Cinchona, yellow, barkCinchona ledgeriana Moens, C. calisaya Wedd., or hybrids of these with other spp. of Cinchona. Do.
CopaibaSouth American spp. of Copaifera L
Cork, oakQuercus suber L., or Q. occidentalis F. GayIn alcoholic beverages only
CostmaryChrysanthemum balsamita L Do.
Costus rootSaussurea lappa Clarke
CubebPiper cubeba L. f
Currant, black, buds and leavesRibes nigrum L
Damiana leavesTurnera diffusa Willd
DavanaArtemisia pallens Wall
Dill, IndianAnethum sowa Roxb. (Peucedanum graveolens Benth et Hook., Anethum graveolens L.)
Dittany (fraxinella) rootsDictamnus albus L Do.
Dittany of CreteOriganum dictamnus L
Dragon's blood (dracorubin)Daemonorops spp
Elder tree leavesSambucus nigra LIn alcoholic beverages only; not to exceed 25 p.p.m. prussic acid in the flavor
Elecampane rhizome and rootsInula helenium LIn alcoholic beverages only
ElemiCanarium commune L. or C. luzonicum Miq
ErigeronErigeron canadensis L
Eucalyptus globulus leavesEucalyptus globulus Labill
Fir ("pine") needles and twigsAbies sibirica Ledeb., A. alba Mill., A. sachalinesis Masters or A. mayriana Miyabe et Kudo
Fir, balsam, needles and twigsAbies balsamea (L.) Mill
Galanga, greaterAlpinia galanga Willd Do.
GalbanumFerula galbaniflua Boiss. et Buhse and other Ferula spp
Gambir (catechu, pale)Uncaria gambir Roxb
Genet flowersSpartium junceum L
Gentian rhizome and rootsGentiana lutea L
Gentian, stemlessGentiana acaulis L Do.
Germander, chamaedrysTeucrium chamaedrys L Do.
Germander, goldenTeucrium polium L Do.
GuaiacGuaiacum officinale L., G. santum L., Bulnesia sarmienti Lor
GuaranaPaullinia cupana HBK
Haw, black, barkViburnum prunifolium L
Hemlock needles and twigsTsuga canadensis (L.) Carr. or T. heterophylla (Raf.) Sarg
Hyacinth flowersHyacinthus orientalis L
Iceland mossCetraria islandica Ach Do.
ImperatoriaPeucedanum ostruthium (L.). Koch (Imperatoria ostruthium L.)
IvaAchillea moschata Jacq Do.
LabdanumCistus spp
Lemon-verbenaLippia citriodora HBK Do.
Linaloe woodBursera delpechiana Poiss. and other Bursera spp
Linden leavesTillia spp Do.
LovageLevisticum officinale Koch
Lungmoss (lungwort)Sticta pulmonacea Ach
Maidenhair fernAdiantum capillus-veneris L Do.
Maple, mountainAcer spicatum Lam
Mimosa (black wattle) flowersAcacia decurrens Willd. var. dealbata
Mullein flowersVerbascum phlomoides L. or V. thapsiforme Schrad Do.
MyrrhCommiphora molmol Engl., C. abyssinica (Berg) Engl., or other Commiphora spp
Myrtle leavesMyrtus communis L Do.
Oak, English, woodQuercus robur L Do.
Oak, white, chipsQuercus alba L
Oak mossEvernia prunastri (L.) Ach., E. furfuracea (L.) Mann, and other lichensFinished food thujone free 1
OlibanumBoswellia carteri Birdw. and other Boswellia spp
Opopanax (bisabolmyrrh)Opopanax chironium Koch (true opopanax) of Commiphora erythraea Engl. var. Llabrescens
Orris rootIris germanica L. (including its variety florentina Dykes) and I. pallida Lam
PansyViola tricolor LIn alcoholic beverages only
Passion flowerPassiflora incarnata L
PatchoulyPogostemon cablin Benth. and P. heyneanus Benth
Peach leavesPrunus persica (L.) BatschIn alcoholic beverages only; not to exceed 25 p.p.m. prussic acid in the flavor
Pennyroyal, AmericanHedeoma pulegioides (L.) Pers
Pennyroyal, EuropeanMentha pulegium L
Pine, dwarf, needles and twigsPinus mugo Turra var. pumilio (Haenke) Zenari
Pine, Scotch, needles and twigsPinus sylvestris L
Pine, white, barkPinus strobus LIn alcoholic beverages only
Pine, white oilPinus palustris Mill., and other Pinus spp
Poplar budsPopulus balsamifera L. (P. tacamahacca Mill.), P. candicans Ait., or P. nigra L Do.
QuassiaPicrasma excelsa (Sw.) Planch, or Quassia amara L
Quebracho barkAspidosperma quebracho-blanco Schlecht, or (Quebrachia lorentzii (Griseb))Schinopsis lorentzii (Griseb.) Engl.
Quillaia (soapbark)Quillaja saponaria Mol
Red saunders (red sandalwood)Pterocarpus san alinus LIn alcoholic beverages only
Rhatany rootKrameria triandra Ruiz et Pav. or K. argentea Mart
Rhubarb, garden rootRheum rhaponticum L Do.
Rhubarb rootRheum officinale Baill., R. palmatum L., or other spp. (excepting R. rhaponticum L.) or hybrids of Rheum grown in China
RoselleHibiscus sabdariffa L Do.
Rosin (colophony)Pinus palustris Mill., and other Pinus spp Do.
St. Johnswort leaves, flowers, and caulisHypericum perforatum LHypericin-free alcohol distillate form only; in alcoholic beverages only
Sandalwood, white (yellow, or East Indian)Santalum album L
SandaracTetraclinis articulata (Vahl.), MastIn alcoholic beverages only
SarsaparillaSmilax aristolochiaefolia Mill., (Mexican sarsaparilla), S. regelii Killip et Morton (Honduras sarsaparilla), S. febrifuga Kunth (Ecuadorean sarsaparilla), or undetermined Smilax spp. (Ecuadorean or Central American sarsaparilla)
Sassafras leavesSassafras albidum (Nutt.) NeesSafrole free
Senna, AlexandriaCassia acutifolia Delile
Serpentaria (Virginia snakeroot)Aristolochia serpentaria LIn alcoholic beverages only
Simaruba barkSimaruba amara Aubl Do.
Snakeroot, Canadian (wild ginger)Asarum canadense L
Spruce needles and twigsPicea glauca (Moench) Voss or P. mariana (Mill.) BSP
Storax (styrax)Liquidambar orientalis Mill. or L. styraciflua L
Tagetes (marigold)Tagetes patula L., T. erecta L., or T. minuta L. (T. glandulifera Schrank)As oil only
TansyTanacetum vulgare LIn alcoholic beverages only; finished alcoholic beverage thujone free 1
Thistle, blessed (holy thistle)Onicus benedictus LIn alcoholic beverages only
Thymus capitatus (Spanish "origanum")Thymus capitatus Hoffmg. et Link
ToluMyroxylon balsamum (L.) Harms
TurpentinePinus palustris Mill. and other Pinus spp. which yield terpene oils exclusively
Valerian rhizome and rootsValeriana officinalis L
VeronicaVeronica officinalis L Do.
Vervain, EuropeanVerbena officinalis L Do.
VetiverVetiveria zizanioides Stapf Do.
Violet, SwissViola calcarata L
Walnut husks (hulls), leaves, and green nutsJuglans nigra L. or J. regia L
Woodruff, sweetAsperula odorata LIn alcoholic beverages only
YarrowAchillea millefolium LIn beverages only; finished beverage thujone free 1
Yerba santaEriodictyon californicum (Hook, et Arn.) Torr
Yucca, Joshua-treeYucca brevifolia Engelm
Yucca, MohaveYucca schidigera Roezl ex Ortgies (Y. mohavensis Sarg.)

1 As determined by using the method (or, in other than alcoholic beverages, a suitable adaptation thereof) in section 9.129 of the "Official Methods of Analysis of the Association of Official Analytical Chemists," 13th Ed. (1980), which is incorporated by reference. Copies may be obtained from the AOAC INTERNATIONAL, 481 North Frederick Ave., suite 500, Gaithersburg, MD 20877, or may be examined at the National Archives and Records Administration (NARA). For information on the availability of this material at NARA, call 202-741-6030, or go to: http://www.archives.gov/federal_register/code_of_federal_regulations/ibr_locations.html.

[42 FR 14491, Mar. 15, 1977, as amended at 43 FR 14644, Apr. 7, 1978; 49 FR 10104, Mar. 19, 1984; 54 FR 24897, June 12, 1989; 69 FR 24511, May 4, 2004; 72 FR 10357, Mar. 8, 2007]

Sec. 172.515 Synthetic flavoring substances and adjuvants.

Synthetic flavoring substances and adjuvants may be safely used in food in accordance with the following conditions.

(a) They are used in the minimum quantity required to produce their intended effect, and otherwise in accordance with all the principles of good manufacturing practice.

(b) They consist of one or more of the following, used alone or in combination with flavoring substances and adjuvants generally recognized as safe in food, prior-sanctioned for such use, or regulated by an appropriate section in this part.

Acetal; acetaldehyde diethyl acetal.

Acetaldehyde phenethyl propyl acetal.

Acetanisole; 4'-methoxyacetophenone.

Acetophenone; methyl phenyl ketone.

Allyl anthranilate.

Allyl butyrate.

Allyl cinnamate.

Allyl cyclohexaneacetate.

Allyl cyclohexanebutyrate.

Allyl cyclohexanehexanoate.

Allyl cyclohexaneproprionate.

Allyl cyclohexanevalerate.

Allyl disulfide.

Allyl 2-ethylbutyrate.

Allyl hexanoate; allyl caproate.

Allyl [alpha]-ionone; 1-(2,6,6-trimethyl-2-cyclo-hexene-1-yl)-1,6-heptadiene-3-one.

Allyl isothiocyanate; mustard oil.

Allyl isovalerate.

Allyl mercaptan; 2-propene-1-thiol.

Allyl nonanoate.

Allyl octanoate.

Allyl phenoxyacetate.

Allyl phenylacetate.

Allyl propionate.

Allyl sorbate; allyl 2,4-hexadienoate.

Allyl sulfide.

Allyl tiglate; allyl trans- 2-methyl-2-butenoate.

Allyl 10-undecenoate.

Ammonium isovalerate.

Ammonium sulfide.

Amyl alcohol; pentyl alcohol.

Amyl butyrate.


[alpha]-Amylcinnamaldehyde dimethyl acetal.

[alpha]-Amylcinnamyl acetate.

[alpha]-Amylcinnamyl alcohol.

[alpha]-Amylcinnamyl formate.

[alpha]-Amylcinnamyl isovalerate.

Amyl formate.

Amyl heptanoate.

Amyl hexanoate.

Amyl octanoate.

Anisole; methoxybenzene.

Anisyl acetate.

Anisyl alcohol; p- methoxybenzyl alcohol.

Anisyl butyrate

Anisyl formate.

Anisyl phenylacetate.

Anisyl propionate.

Beechwood creosote.

Benzaldehyde dimethyl acetal.

Benzaldehyde glyceryl acetal; 2-phenyl-m- dioxan-5-ol.

Benzaldehyde propylene glycol acetal; 4-methyl-2-phenyl-m- dioxolane.

Benzenethiol; thiophenol.

Benzoin; 2-hydroxy-2-phenylacetophenone.

Benzyl acetate.

Benzyl acetoacetate.

Benzyl alcohol.

Benzyl benzoate.

Benzyl butyl ether.

Benzyl butyrate.

Benzyl cinnamate.

Benzyl 2,3-dimethylcrotonate; benzyl methyl tiglate.

Benzyl disulfide; dibenzyl disulfide.

Benzyl ethyl ether.

Benzyl formate.

3-Benzyl-4-heptanone; benzyl dipropyl ketone.

Benzyl isobutyrate.

Benzyl isovalerate.

Benzyl mercaptan; [alpha]-toluenethiol.

Benzyl methoxyethyl acetal; acetaldehyde benzyl [beta]-methoxyethyl acetal.

Benzyl phenylacetate.

Benzyl propionate.

Benzyl salicylate.

Birch tar oil.

Borneol; d- camphanol.

Bornyl acetate.

Bornyl formate.

Bornyl isovalerate.

Bornyl valerate.

[beta]-Bourbonene; 1,2,3,3a,3b[beta],4,5,6,6a[beta],6b[alpha]-deca-hydro-l[alpha]-isopropyl-3aa-methyl-6-methylene-cyclobuta [1,2:3,4] dicyclopentene.


2-Butanone; methyl ethyl ketone.

Butter acids.

Butter esters.

Butyl acetate.

Butyl acetoacetate.

Butyl alcohol; 1-butanol.

Butyl anthranilate.

Butyl butyrate.

Butyl butyryllactate; lactic acid, butyl ester, butyrate.


Butyl cinnamate.

Butyl 2-decenoate.

Butyl ethyl malonate.

Butyl formate.

Butyl heptanoate.

Butyl hexanoate.

Butyl p- hydroxybenzoate.

Butyl isobutyrate.

Butyl isovalerate.

Butyl lactate.

Butyl laurate.

Butyl levulinate.

Butyl phenylacetate.

Butyl propionate.

Butyl stearate.

Butyl sulfide.

Butyl 10-undecenoate.

Butyl valerate.



Camphene; 2,2-dimethyl-3-methylenenorbornane.

d- Camphor.

Carvacrol; 2-p- cymenol.

Carvacryl ethyl ether; 2-ethoxy-p- cymene.

Carveol; p- mentha-6,8-dien-2-ol.

4-Carvomenthenol; 1-p- menthen-4-ol; 4-terpinenol.

cis Carvone oxide; 1,6-epoxy-p- menth-8-en-2-one.

Carvyl acetate.

Carvyl propionate.


Caryophyllene alcohol.

Caryophyllene alcohol acetate.

[beta]-Caryophyllene oxide; 4-12,12-trimethyl-9-methylene-5-oxatricylo [ 4 6] dodecane.

Cedarwood oil alcohols.

Cedarwood oil terpenes.


Cinnamaldehyde ethylene glycol acetal.

Cinnamic acid.

Cinnamyl acetate.

Cinnamyl alcohol; 3-phenyl-2-propen-1-ol.

Cinnamyl benzoate.

Cinnamyl butyrate.

Cinnamyl cinnamate.

Cinnamyl formate.

Cinnamyl isobutyrate.

Cinnamyl isovalerate.

Cinnamyl phenylacetate.

Cinnamyl propionate.

Citral diethyl acetal; 3,7-dimethyl-2,6-octadienal diethyl acetal.

Citral dimethyl acetal; 3,7-dimethyl-2,6-octadienal dimethyl acetal.

Citral propylene glycol acetal.

Citronellal; 3,7-dimethyl-6-octenal; rhodinal.

Citronellol; 3,7-dimethyl-6-octen-1-ol; d- citronellol.


Citronellyl acetate.

Citronellyl butyrate.

Citronellyl formate.

Citronellyl isobutyrate.

Citronellyl phenylacetate.

Citronellyl propionate.

Citronellyl valerate.

p- Cresol.

Cuminaldehyde; cuminal; p- isopropyl benzaldehyde.

Cyclohexaneacetic acid.

Cyclohexaneethyl acetate.

Cyclohexyl acetate.

Cyclohexyl anthranilate.

Cyclohexyl butyrate.

Cyclohexyl cinnamate.

Cyclohexyl formate.

Cyclohexyl isovalerate.

Cyclohexyl propionate.

p- Cymene.

γ-Decalactone; 4-hydroxy-decanoic acid, γ-lactone.

γ-Decalactone; 5-hydroxy-decanoic acid, δ-lactone.

Decanal dimethyl acetal.

1-Decanol; decylic alcohol.


3-Decen-2-one; heptylidene acetone.

Decyl actate.

Decyl butyrate.

Decyl propionate.

Dibenzyl ether.

4,4-Dibutyl-γ-butyrolactone; 4,4-dibutyl-4-hydroxy-butyric acid, γ-lactone.

Dibutyl sebacate.

Diethyl malate.

Diethyl malonate; ethyl malonate.

Diethyl sebacate.

Diethyl succinate.

Diethyl tartrate.


Dihydrocarveol; 8-p- menthen-2-ol; 6-methyl-3-isopropenylcyclohexanol.


Dihydrocarvyl acetate.

m- Dimethoxybenzene.

p- Dimethoxybenzene; dimethyl hydroquinone.


[alpha],[alpha]-Dimethylbenzyl isobutyrate; phenyldimethylcarbinyl isobutyrate.


2,6-Dimethyl octanal; isodecylaldehyde.

3,7-Dimethyl-1-octanol; tetrahydrogeraniol.

[alpha],[alpha]-Dimethylphenethyl acetate; benzylpropyl acetate; benzyldimethylcarbinyl acetate.

[alpha],[alpha]-Dimethylphenethyl alcohol; dimethylbenzyl carbinol.

[alpha],[alpha]-Dimethylphenethyl butyrate; benzyldimethylcarbinyl butyrate.

[alpha],[alpha]-Dimethylphenethyl formate; benzyldimethylcarbinyl formate.

Dimethyl succinate.

1,3-Diphenyl-2-propanone; dibenzyl ketone.

delta-Dodecalactone; 5-hydroxydodecanoic acid, deltalactone.

γ-Dodecalactone; 4-hydroxydodecanoic acid γ-lactone.




Ethyl acetoacetate.

Ethyl 2-acetyl-3-phenylpropionate; ethylbenzyl acetoacetate.

Ethyl aconitate, mixed esters.

Ethyl Ï쳌-anisate.

Ethyl anthranilate.

Ethyl benzoate.

Ethyl benzoylacetate.

[alpha]-Ethylbenzyl butyrate; [alpha]-phenylpropyl butyrate.

Ethyl brassylate; tridecanedioic acid cyclic ethylene glycol diester; cyclo 1,13-ethyl-enedioxytridecan-1,13-dione.

2-Ethylbutyl acetate.


2-Ethylbutyric acid.

Ethyl cinnamate.

Ethyl crotonate; trans- 2-butenoic acid ethylester.

Ethyl cyclohexanepropionate.

Ethyl decanoate.


Ethyl 2-furanpropionate.

4-Ethylguaiacol; 4-ethyl-2-methoxyphenol.

Ethyl heptanoate.

2-Ethyl-2-heptenal; 2-ethyl-3-butylacrolein.

Ethyl hexanoate.

Ethyl isobutyrate.

Ethyl isovalerate.

Ethyl lactate.

Ethyl laurate.

Ethyl levulinate.

Ethyl maltol; 2-ethyl-3-hydroxy-4H-pyran-4-one.

Ethyl 2-methylbutyrate.

Ethyl myristate.

Ethyl nitrite.

Ethyl nonanoate.

Ethyl 2-nonynoate; ethyl octyne carbonate.

Ethyl octanoate.

Ethyl oleate.

Ethyl phenylacetate.

Ethyl 4-phenylbutyrate.

Ethyl 3-phenylglycidate.

Ethyl 3-phenylpropionate; ethyl hydrocinnamate.

Ethyl propionate.

Ethyl pyruvate.

Ethyl salicylate.

Ethyl sorbate; ethyl 2,4-hexadienoate.

Ethyl tiglate; ethyl trans- 2-methyl-2-butenoate.

Ethyl undecanoate.

Ethyl 10-undecenoate.

Ethyl valerate.

Eucalyptol; 1,8-epoxy-p- menthane; cineole.

Eugenyl acetate.

Eugenyl benzoate.

Eugenyl formate.

Farnesol; 3,7,11-trimethyl-2,6,10-dodecatrien-1-ol.

d- Fenchone; d- 1,3,3-trimethyl-2-norbornanone.

Fenchyl alcohol; 1,3,3-trimethyl-2-norbornanol.

Formic acid

(2-Furyl)-2-propanone; furyl acetone.

1-Furyl-2-propanone; furyl acetone.

Fusel oil, refined (mixed amyl alcohols).

Geranyl acetoacetate; trans- 3,7-dimethyl-2, 6-octadien-1-yl acetoacetate.

Geranyl acetone; 6,10-dimethyl-5,9-undecadien-2-one.

Geranyl benzoate.

Geranyl butyrate.

Geranyl formate.

Geranyl hexanoate

Geranyl isobutyrate.

Geranyl isovalerate.

Geranyl phenylacetate.

Geranyl propionate.

Glucose pentaacetate.

Guaiacol; μ-methoxyphenol.

Guaiacyl acetate; μ-methoxyphenyl acetate.

Guaiacyl phenylacetate.

Guaiene; 1,4-dimethyl-7-isopropenyl-[delta]9,10-octahydroazulene.

Guaiol acetate; 1,4-dimethyl-7-([alpha]-hydroxy-isopropyl)-δ9,10-octahydroazulene acetate.

γ-Heptalactone; 4-hydroxyheptanoic acid, γ-lactone.

Heptanal; enanthaldehyde.

Heptanal dimethyl acetal.

Heptanal 1,2-glyceryl acetal.

2,3-Heptanedione; acetyl valeryl.


2-Heptanone; methyl amyl ketone.

3-Heptanone; ethyl butyl ketone.

4-Heptanone; dipropyl ketone.

cis- 4-Heptenal; cis- 4-hepten-1-al.

Heptyl acetate.

Heptyl alcohol; enanthic alcohol.

Heptyl butyrate.

Heptyl cinnamate.

Heptyl formate.

Heptyl isobutyrate.

Heptyl octanoate.

1-Hexadecanol; cetyl alcohol.

Ï?-6-Hexadecenlactone; 16-hydroxy-6-hexadecenoic acid, Ï?-lactone; ambrettolide.

γ-Hexalactone; 4-hydroxyhexanoic acid, γ-lactone; tonkalide.

Hexanal; caproic aldehyde.

2,3-Hexanedione; acetyl butyryl.

Hexanoic acid; caproic acid.



3-Hexen-1-ol; leaf alcohol.

2-Hexen-1-yl acetate.

3-Hexenyl isovalerate.

3-Hexenyl 2-methylbutyrate.

3-Hexenyl phenylacetate; cis- 3-hexenyl phenylacetate.

Hexyl acetate.


Hexyl alcohol.

Hexyl butyrate.


Hexyl formate.

Hexyl hexanoate.

2-Hexylidene cyclopentanone.

Hexyl isovalerate.

Hexyl 2-methylbutyrate.

Hexyl octanoate.

Hexyl phenylacetate; n- hexyl phenylacetate.

Hexyl propionate.

Hydroxycitronellal; 3,7-dimethyl-7-hydroxy-octanal.

Hydroxycitronellal diethyl acetal.

Hydroxycitronellal dimethyl acetal.

Hydroxycitronellol; 3,7-dimethyl-1,7-octanediol.

N- (4-Hydroxy-3-methoxybenzyl)-nonanamide; pelargonyl vanillylamide.

5-Hydroxy-4-octanone; butyroin.

4-(p- Hydroxyphenyl)-2-butanone; p- hydroxybenzyl acetone.


[alpha]-Ionone; 4-(2,6,6-trimethyl-2-cyclohexen-1-yl)-3-buten-2-one.

[beta]-Ionone; 4-(2,6,6-trimethyl-1-cyclohexen-1-yl)-3-buten-2-one.

[alpha]-Irone; 4-(2,5,6,6-tetramethyl-2-cyclohexene-1-yl)-3-buten-2-one; 6-methylionone.

Isoamyl acetate.

Isoamyl acetoacetate.

Isoamyl alcohol; isopentyl alcohol; 3-methyl-1-butanol.

Isoamyl benzoate.

Isoamyl butyrate.

Isoamyl cinnamate.

Isoamyl formate.

Isoamyl 2-furanbutyrate; [alpha]-isoamyl furfurylpropionate.

Isoamyl 2-furanpropionate; [alpha]-isoamyl furfurylacetate.

Isoamyl hexanoate.

Isoamyl isobutyrate.

Isoamyl isovalerate.

Isoamyl laurate.

Isoamyl-2-methylbutyrate; isopentyl-2-methylbutyrate.

Isoamyl nonanoate.

Isoamyl octanoate.

Isoamyl phenylacetate.

Isoamyl propionate.

Isoamyl pyruvate.

Isoamyl salicylate.


Isobornyl acetate.

Isobornyl formate.

Isobornyl isovalerate.

Isobornyl propionate.

Isobutyl acetate.

Isobutyl acetoacetate.

Isobutyl alcohol.

Isobutyl angelate; isobutyl cis- 2-methyl-2-butenoate.

Isobutyl anthranilate.

Isobutyl benzoate.

Isobutyl butyrate.

Isobutyl cinnamate.

Isobutyl formate.

Isobutyl 2-furanpropionate.

Isobutyl heptanoate.

Isobutyl hexanoate.

Isobutyl isobutyrate.

[alpha]-Isobutylphenethyl alcohol; isobutyl benzyl carbinol; 4-methyl-1-phenyl-2-pentanol.

Isobutyl phenylacetate.

Isobutyl propionate.

Isobutyl salicylate.



Isobutyric acid.

Isoeugenol; 2-methoxy-4-propenylphenol.

Isoeugenyl acetate.

Isoeugenyl benzyl ether; benzyl isoeugenol.

Isoeugenyl ethyl ether; 2-ethoxy-5-propenyl-anisole; ethyl isoeugenol.

Isoeugenyl formate.

Isoeugenyl methyl ether; 4-propenylveratrole; methyl isoeugenol.

Isoeugenyl phenylacetate.

Isojasmone; mixture of 2-hexylidenecyclopentanone and 2-hexyl-2-cyclopenten-1-one.

[alpha]-Isomethylionone; 4-(2,6,6-trimethyl-2-cyclohexen-1-yl)-3-methyl-3-buten-2-one; methyl γ-ionone.

Isopropyl acetate.


Isopropyl alcohol; isopropanol.

Isopropyl benzoate.

Ï쳌-Isopropylbenzyl alcohol; cuminic alcohol; Ï쳌-cymen-7-ol.

Isopropyl butyrate.

Isopropyl cinnamate.

Isopropyl formate.

Isopropyl hexanoate.

Isopropyl isobutyrate.

Isopropyl isovalerate.

Ï쳌-Isopropylphenylacetaldehyde; Ï쳌-cymen-7-carboxaldehyde.

Isopropyl phenylacetate.

3-(Ï쳌-Isopropylphenyl)-propionaldehyde; Ï쳌-isopropylhydrocinnamaldehyde; cuminyl acetaldehyde.

Isopropyl propionate.

Isopulegol; p- menth-8-en-3-ol.

Isopulegone; p- menth-8-en-3-one.

Isopulegyl acetate.


Isovaleric acid.

cis- Jasmone; 3-methyl-2-(2-pentenyl)-2-cyclopenten-1-one.

Lauric aldehyde; dodecanal.

Lauryl acetate.

Lauryl alcohol; 1-dodecanol.

Lepidine; 4-methylquinoline.

Levulinic acid.

Linalool oxide; cis- and trans- 2-vinyl-2-methyl-5-(1'-hydroxy-1'-methylethyl) tetrahydrofuran.

Linalyl anthranilate; 3,7-dimethyl-1,6-octadien-3-yl anthranilate.

Linalyl benzoate.

Linalyl butyrate.

Linalyl cinnamate.

Linalyl formate.

Linalyl hexanoate.

Linalyl isobutyrate.

Linalyl isovalerate.

Linalyl octanoate.

Linalyl propionate.

Maltol; 3-hydroxy-2-methyl-4H-pyran-4-one.

Menthadienol; p- mentha-1,8(10)-dien-9-ol.

p- Mentha-1,8-dien-7-ol; perillyl alcohol.

Menthadienyl acetate; p- mentha-1,8(10)-dien-9-yl acetate.

p- Menth-3-en-1-ol.

1-p- Menthen--9-yl acetate; p- menth-1-en-9-yl acetate.

Menthol; 2-isopropyl-5-methylcyclohexanol.

Menthone; p -menthan-3-one.

Menthyl acetate; p- menth-3-yl acetate.

Menthyl isovalerate; p- menth-3-yl isovalerate.

o- Methoxybenzaldehyde.

p- Methoxybenzaldehyde; p- anisaldehyde.

o- Methoxycinnamaldehyde.

2-Methoxy-4-methylphenol; 4-methylguaiacol; 2-methoxy-p- cresol.

4-(p- Methoxyphenyl)-2-butanone; anisyl acetone.

1-(4-Methoxyphenyl)-4-methyl-1-penten-3-one; methoxystyryl isopropyl ketone.

1-(p- Methoxyphenyl)-1-penten-3-one; [alpha]-methylanisylidene acetone; ethone.

1-(p- Methoxyphenyl)-2-propanone; anisylmethyl ketone; anisic ketone.

2-Methoxy-4-vinylphenol; p- vinylguaiacol.

Methyl acetate.

4'-Methylacetophenone; p- methylacetophenone; methyl p- tolyl ketone.

2-Methylallyl butyrate; 2-methyl-2-propenl-yl butyrate.

Methyl anisate.

o- Methylanisole; o- cresyl methyl ether.

p- Methylanisole; p- cresyl methyl ether; p- methoxytoluene.

Methyl benzoate.

Methylbenzyl acetate, mixed o-,m-,p-.

[alpha]-Methylbenzyl acetate; styralyl acetate.

[alpha]-Methylbenzyl alcohol; styralyl alcohol.

[alpha]-Methylbenzyl butyrate; styralyl butyrate.

[alpha]-Methylbenzyl isobutyrate; styralyl isobutyrate.

[alpha]-Methylbenzyl formate; styralyl formate.

[alpha]-Methylbenzyl propionate; styralyl propionate.


2-Methylbutyl isovalerate.

Methyl p-tert- butylphenylacetate.

2-Methylbutyraldehyde; methyl ethyl acetaldehyde.

3-Methylbutyraldehyde; isovaleraldehyde.

Methyl butyrate.

2-Methylbutyric acid.


p- Methylcinnamaldehyde.

Methyl cinnamate.


Methylcyclopentenolone; 3-methylcyclopentane-1,2-dione.

Methyl disulfide; dimethyl disulfide.

Methyl ester of rosin, partially hydrogenated (as defined in § 172.615); methyl dihydroabietate.

Methyl heptanoate.

2-Methylheptanoic acid.




Methyl hexanoate.

Methyl 2-hexanoate.

Methyl p- hydroxybenzoate; methylparaben.

Methyl [alpha]-ionone; 5-(2,6,6-trimethyl-2-cyclohexen-1-yl)-4-penten-3-one.

Methyl [beta]-ionone; 5-(2,6,6-trimethyl-1-cyclohexen-1-yl)-4-penten-3-one.

Methyl [delta]-ionone; 5-(2,6,6-trimethyl-3-cyclohexen-1-yl-)-4-penten-3-one.

Methyl isobutyrate.

2-Methyl-3-(p- isopropylphenyl)-propionalde-hyde; [alpha]-methyl-p- isopropylhydro- cinnamal- dehyde; cyclamen aldehyde.

Methyl isovalerate.

Methyl laurate.

Methyl mercaptan; methanethiol.

Methyl o- methoxybenzoate.

Methyl N- methylanthranilate; dimethyl anthranilate.

Methyl 2-methylbutyrate.


Methyl 4-methylvalerate.

Methyl myristate.

Methyl [beta]-naphthyl ketone; 2'-acetonaphthone.

Methyl nonanoate.

Methyl 2-nonenoate.

Methyl 2-nonynoate; methyloctyne carbonate.

2-Methyloctanal; methyl hexyl acetaldehyde.

Methyl octanoate.

Methyl 2-octynoate; methyl heptine carbonate.

4-Methyl-2,3-pentanedione; acetyl isobutyryl.

4-Methyl-2-pentanone; methyl isobutyl ketone.

[beta]-Methylphenethyl alcohol; hydratropyl alcohol.

Methyl phenylacetate.


2-Methyl-4-phenyl-2-butyl acetate; dimethylphenylethyl carbinyl acetate.

2-Methyl-4-phenyl-2-butyl isobutyrate; dimethylphenyl ethylcarbinyl isobutyrate.

3-Methyl-2-phenylbutyraldehyde; [alpha]-isopropyl phenylacetaldehyde.

Methyl 4-phenylbutyrate.

4-Methyl-1-phenyl-2-pentanone; benzyl isobutyl ketone.

Methyl 3-phenylpropionate; methyl hydrocinnamate.

Methyl propionate.


Methyl sulfide.

3-Methylthiopropionaldehyde; methional.

2-Methyl-3-tolylpropionaldehyde, mixed o-, m-, p-.

2-Methylundecanal; methyl nonyl acetaldehyde.

Methyl 9-undecenoate.

Methyl 2-undecynoate; methyl decyne carbonate.

Methyl valerate.

2-Methylvaleric acid.

Myristaldehyde; tetradecanal.

d- Neomenthol; 2-isopropyl-5-methylcyclohexanol.

Nerol; cis- 3,7-dimethyl-2,6-octadien-1-ol.

Nerolidol; 3,7,11-trimethyl-1,6,10-dodecatrien-3-ol.

Neryl acetate.

Neryl butyrate.

Neryl formate.

Neryl isobutyrate.

Neryl isovalerate.

Neryl propionate.


γ-Nonalactone; 4-hydroxynonanoic acid, γ-lactone; aldehyde C-18.

Nonanal; pelargonic aldehyde.

1,3-Nonanediol acetate, mixed esters.

Nonanoic acid; pelargonic acid.

2-Nonanone; methylheptyl ketone.

3-Nonanon-1-yl acetate; 1-hydroxy-3-nonanone acetate.

Nonyl acetate.

Nonyl alcohol; 1-nonanol.

Nonyl octanoate.

Nonyl isovalerate.

Nootkatone; 5,6-dimethyl-8-isopropenyl-bicyclo[4,4,0]-dec-1-en-3-one.

Ocimene; trans -[beta]-ocimene; 3,7-dimethyl-1,3,6-octatriene.

γ-Octalactone; 4-hydroxyoctanoic acid, γ-lactone.

Octanal; caprylaldehyde.

Octanal dimethyl acetal.

1-Octanol; octyl alcohol.



2-Octanone; methyl hexyl ketone.

3-Octanone; ethyl amyl ketone.


1-Octen-3-ol; amyl vinyl carbinol.

1-Octen-3-yl acetate.

Octyl acetate.

3-Octyl acetate.

Octyl butyrate.

Octyl formate.

Octyl heptanoate.

Octyl isobutyrate.

Octyl isovalerate.

Octyl octanoate.

Octyl phenylacetate.

Octyl propionate.

Ï?-Pentadecalactone; 15-hydroxypentadeca-noic acid, Ï?-lactone; pentadecanolide; angelica lactone.

2,3-Pentanedione; acetyl propionyl.

2-Pentanone; methyl propyl ketone.

4-Pentenoic acid.


Perillaldehyde; 4-isopropenyl-1-cyclohexene-1-carboxaldehyde;p- mentha-1,8-dien-7-al.

Perillyl acetate; p- mentha-1,8-dien-7-yl acetate.

[alpha]-Phellandrene; Ï쳌-mentha-1,5-diene.

Phenethyl acetate.

Phenethyl alcohol; [beta]-phenylethyl alcohol.

Phenethyl anthranilate.

Phenethyl benzoate.

Phenethyl butyrate.

Phenethyl cinnamate.

Phenethyl formate.

Phenethyl isobutyrate.

Phenethyl isovalerate.

Phenethyl 2-methylbutyrate.

Phenethyl phenylacetate.

Phenethyl propionate.

Phenethyl salicylate.

Phenethyl senecioate; phenethyl 3,3-dimethylacrylate.

Phenethyl tiglate.

Phenoxyacetic acid.

2-Phenoxyethyl isobutyrate.

Phenylacetaldehyde; [alpha]-toluic aldehyde.

Phenylacetaldehyde 2,3-butylene glycol acetal.

Phenylacetaldehyde dimethyl acetal.

Phenylacetaldehyde glyceryl acetal.

Phenylacetic acid; [alpha]-toluic acid.

4-Phenyl-2-butanol; phenylethyl methyl carbinol.

4-Phenyl-3-buten-2-ol; methyl styryl carbinol.


4-Phenyl-2-butyl acetate; phenylethyl methyl carbinyl acetate.

1-Phenyl-3-methyl-3-pentanol; phenylethyl methyl ethyl carbinol.

1-Phenyl-1-propanol; phenylethyl carbinol.

3-Phenyl-1-propanol; hydrocinnamyl alcohol.

2-Phenylpropionaldehyde; hydratropalde-hyde.

3-Phenylpropionaldehyde; hydrocinnamaldehyde.

2-Phenylpropionalde-hyde dimethyl acetal; hydratropic aldehyde dimethyl acetal.

3-Phenylpropionic acid; hydrocinnamic acid.

3-Phenylpropyl acetate.

2-Phenylpropyl butyrate.

3-Phenylpropyl cinnamate.

3-Phenylpropyl formate.

3-Phenylpropyl hexanoate.

2-Phenylpropyl isobutyrate.

3-Phenylpropyl isobutyrate.

3-Phenylpropyl isovalerate.

3-Phenylpropyl propionate.


[alpha]-Pinene; 2-pinene.

[beta]-Pinene; 2(10)-pinene.

Pine tar oil.

Pinocarveol; 2(10)-pinen-3-ol.



d- Piperitone; p- menth-1-en-3-one.

Piperitenone; p- mentha-1,4(8)-dien-3-one.

Piperitenone oxide; 1,2-epoxy-p- menth-4-(8)-en-3-one.

Piperonyl acetate; heliotropyl acetate.

Piperonyl isobutyrate.


Polysorbate 20; polyoxyethylene (20) sorbitan monolaurate.

Polysorbate 60; polyoxyethylene (20) sorbitan monostereate.

Polysorbate 80; polyoxyethylene (20) sorbitan monooleate.

Potassium acetate.

Propenylguaethol; 6-ethoxy-m- anol.


Propyl acetate.

Propyl alcohol; 1-propanol.

p- Propyl anisole; dihydroanethole.

Propyl benzoate.

Propyl butyrate.

Propyl cinnamate.

Propyl disulfide.

Propyl formate.

Propyl 2-furanacrylate.

Propyl heptanoate.

Propyl hexanoate.

Propyl p- hydroxybenzoate; propylparaben.


Propyl isobutyrate.

Propyl isovalerate.

Propyl mercaptan.

[alpha]-Propylphenethyl alcohol.

Propyl phenylacetate.

Propyl propionate.

Pyroligneous acid extract.


Pyruvic acid.

Rhodinol; 3,7-dimethyl-7-octen-1-ol; l- citronellol.

Rhodinyl acetate.

Rhodinyl butyrate.

Rhodinyl formate.

Rhodinyl isobutyrate.

Rhodinyl isovalerate.

Rhodinyl phenylacetate.

Rhodinyl propionate.

Rum ether; ethyl oxyhydrate.


Santalol, [alpha] and [beta].

Santalyl acetate.

Santalyl phenylacetate.


Sorbitan monostearate.

Sucrose octaacetate.



[alpha]-Terpineol; p- menth-1-en-8-ol.


Terpinolene; p- menth-1,4(8)-diene.

Terpinyl acetate.

Terpinyl anthranilate.

Terpinyl butyrate.

Terpinyl cinnamate.

Terpinyl formate.

Terpinyl isobutyrate.

Terpinyl isovalerate.

Terpinyl propionate.

Tetrahydrofurfuryl acetate.

Tetrahydrofurfuryl alcohol.

Tetrahydrofurfuryl butyrate.

Tetrahydrofurfuryl propionate.

Tetrahydro-pseudo-ionone; 6,10-dimethyl-9-undecen-2-one.

Tetrahydrolinalool; 3,7-dimethyloctan-3-ol.

Tetramethyl ethylcyclohexenone; mixture of 5-ethyl-2,3,4,5-tetramethyl-2-cyclohexen-1-one and 5-ethyl-3,4,5,6-tetramethyl-2-cyclohexen-1-one.

2-Thienyl mercaptan; 2-thienylthiol.


Tolualdehyde glyceryl acetal, mixed o, m, p.

Tolualdehydes, mixed o, m, p.

p- Tolylacetaldehyde.

o- Tolyl acetate; o- cresyl acetate.

p- Tolyl acetate; p- cresyl acetate.

4-(p- Tolyl)-2-butanone; p- methylbenzylacetone.

p- Tolyl isobutyrate.

p- Tolyl laurate.

p- Tolyl phenylacetate.

2-(p- Tolyl)-propionaldehyde; p- methylhydratropic aldehyde.

Tributyl acetylcitrate.


2,3-Undecadione; acetyl nonyryl.

γ-Undecalactone; 4-hydroxyundecanoic acid γ-lactone; peach aldehyde; aldehyde C-14.


2-Undecanone; methyl nonyl ketone.

9-Undecenal; undecenoic aldehyde.


Undecen-1-ol; undecylenic alcohol.

10-Undecen-1-yl acetate.

Undecyl alcohol.

Valeraldehyde; pentanal.

Valeric acid; pentanoic acid.

Vanillin acetate; acetyl vanillin.


Verbenol; 2-pinen-4-ol.

Zingerone; 4-(4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenyl)-2-butanone.

(c) [delta]-Decalactone and [delta]-dodecalactone when used separately or in combination in oleomargarine are used at levels not to exceed 10 parts per million and 20 parts per million, respectively, in accordance with § 166.110 of this chapter.

(d) BHA (butylated hydroxyanisole) may be used as an antioxidant in flavoring substances whereby the additive does not exceed 0.5 percent of the essential (volatile) oil content of the flavoring substance.

[42 FR 14491, Mar. 15, 1977, as amended at 42 FR 23148, May 6, 1977; 43 FR 19843, May 9, 1978; 45 FR 22915, Apr. 4, 1980; 47 FR 27810, June 25, 1982; 48 FR 10812, Mar. 15, 1983; 48 FR 51907, Nov. 15, 1983; 49 FR 5747, Feb. 15, 1984; 50 FR 42932, Oct. 23, 1985; 54 FR 7402, Feb. 21, 1989; 61 FR 14245, Apr. 1, 1996; 69 FR 24511, May 4, 2004; 83 FR 50490, 50503, Oct. 9, 2018]

Sec. 172.520 Cocoa with dioctyl sodium sulfosuccinate for manufacturing.

The food additive "cocoa with dioctyl sodium sulfosuccinate for manufacturing," conforming to § 163.117 of this chapter and § 172.810, is used or intended for use as a flavoring substance in dry beverage mixes whereby the amount of dioctyl sodium sulfosuccinate does not exceed 75 parts per million of the finished beverage. The labeling of the dry beverage mix shall bear adequate directions to assure use in compliance with this section.

Sec. 172.530 Disodium guanylate.

Disodium guanylate may be safely used as a flavor enhancer in foods, at a level not in excess of that reasonably required to produce the intended effect.

Sec. 172.535 Disodium inosinate.

The food additive disodium inosinate may be safely used in food in accordance with the following prescribed conditions:

(a) The food additive is the disodium salt of inosinic acid, manufactured and purified so as to contain no more than 150 parts per million of soluble barium in the compound disodium inosinate with seven and one-half molecules of water of crystallization.

(b) The food additive is used as a flavoring adjuvant in food.

Sec. 172.540 DL-Alanine.

DL-Alanine (a racemic mixture of D- and L-alanine; CAS Reg. No. 302-72-7) may be safely used as a flavor enhancer for sweeteners in pickling mixtures at a level not to exceed 1 percent of the pickling spice that is added to the pickling brine.

[56 FR 6968, Feb. 21, 1991]

Sec. 172.560 Modified hop extract.

The food additive modified hop extract may be safely used in beer in accordance with the following prescribed conditions:

(a) The food additive is used or intended for use as a flavoring agent in the brewing of beer.

(b) The food additive is manufactured by one of the following processes:

(1) The additive is manufactured from a hexane extract of hops by simultaneous isomerization and selective reduction in an alkaline aqueous medium with sodium borohydride, whereby the additive meets the following specifications:

(i) A solution of the food additive solids is made up in approximately 0.012 n alkaline methyl alcohol (6 milliliters of 1 n sodium hydroxide diluted to 500 milliliters with methyl alcohol) to show an absorbance at 253 millimicrons of 0.6 to 0.9 per centimeter. (This absorbance is obtained by approximately 0.03 milligram solids permilliliter.) The ultraviolet absorption spectrum of this solution exhibits the following characteristics: An absorption peak at 253 millimicrons; no absorption peak at 325 to 330 millimicrons; the absorbance at 268 millimicrons does not exceed the absorbance at 272 millimicrons.

(ii) The boron content of the food additive does not exceed 310 parts per million (0.0310 percent), calculated as boron.

(2) The additive is manufactured from hops by a sequence of extractions and fractionations, using benzene, light petroleum spirits, and methyl alcohol as solvents, followed by isomerization by potassium carbonate treatment. Residues of solvents in the modified hop extract shall not exceed 1.0 part per million of benzene, 1.0 part per million of light petroleum spirits, and 250 parts per million of methyl alcohol. The light petroleum spirits and benzene solvents shall comply with the specifications in § 172.250 except that the boiling point range for light petroleum spirits is 150 deg.F-300 deg.F.

(3) The additive is manufactured from hops by a sequence of extractions and fractionations, using methylene chloride, hexane, and methyl alcohol as solvents, followed by isomerization by sodium hydroxide treatment. Residues of the solvents in the modified hop extract shall not exceed 5 parts per million of methylene chloride, 25 parts per million of hexane, and 100 parts per million of methyl alcohol.

(4) The additive is manufactured from hops by a sequence of extractions and fractionations, using benzene, light petroleum spirits, methyl alcohol, n- butyl alcohol, and ethyl acetate as solvents, followed by isomerization by potassium carbonate treatment. Residues of solvents in the modified hop extract shall not exceed 1.0 part per million of benzene, 1.0 part per million of light petroleum spirits, 50 parts per million of methyl alcohol, 50 parts per million of n- butyl alcohol, and 1 part per million of ethyl acetate. The light petroleum spirits and benzene solvents shall comply with the specifications in § 172.250 except that the boiling point range for light petroleum spirits is 150 deg.F to 300 deg.F.

(5) The additive is manufactured from hops by an initial extraction and fractionation using one or more of the following solvents: Ethylene dichloride, hexane, isopropyl alcohol, methyl alcohol, methylene chloride, trichloroethylene, and water; followed by isomerization by calcium chloride or magnesium chloride treatment in ethylene dichloride, methylene chloride, or trichloroethylene and a further sequence of extractions and fractionations using one or more of the solvents set forth in this paragraph. Residues of the solvents in the modified hop extract shall not exceed 125 parts per million of hexane; 150 parts per million of ethylene dichloride, methylene chloride, or trichloroethylene; or 250 parts per million of isopropyl alcohol or methyl alcohol.

(6) The additive is manufactured from hops by an initial extraction and fractionation using one or more of the solvents listed in paragraph (b)(5) of this section followed by: Hydrogenation using palladium as a catalyst in methyl alcohol, ethyl alcohol, or isopropyl alcohol acidified with hydrochloric or sulfuric acid; oxidation with peracetic acid; isomerization by calcium chloride or magnesium chloride treatment in ethylene dichloride, methylene chloride, or trichloroethylene (alternatively, the hydrogenation and isomerization steps may be performed in reverse order); and a further sequence of extractions and fractionations using one or more of the solvents listed in paragraph (b)(5) of this section. The additive shall meet the residue limitations as prescribed in paragraph (b)(5) of this section.

(7) The additive is manufactured from hops as set forth in paragraph (b)(6) of this section followed by reduction with sodium borohydride in aqueous alkaline methyl alcohol, and a sequence of extractions and fractionations using one or more of the solvents listed in paragraph (b)(5) of this section. The additive shall meet the residue limitations as prescribed in paragraph (b)(5) of this section, and a boron content level not in excess of 300 parts per million (0.0300 percent), calculated as boron.

(8) The additive is manufactured from hops as a nonisomerizable nonvolatile hop resin by an initial extraction and fractionation using one or more of the solvents listed in paragraph (b)(5) of this section followed by a sequence of aqueous extractions and removal of nonaqueous solvents to less than 0.5 percent. The additive is added to the wort before or during cooking in the manufacture of beer.

Sec. 172.575 Quinine.

Quinine, as the hydrochloride salt or sulfate salt, may be safely used in food in accordance with the following conditions:

Uses Limitations
In carbonated beverages as a flavorNot to exceed 83 parts per million, as quinine. Label shall bear a prominent declaration of the presence of quinine either by the use of the word "quinine" in the name of the article or through a separate declaration.
Sec. 172.580 Safrole-free extract of sassafras.

The food additive safrole-free extract of sassafras may be safely used in accordance with the following prescribed conditions:

(a) The additive is the aqueous extract obtained from the root bark of the plant Sassafras albidum (Nuttall) Nees (Fam. Lauraceae).

(b) It is obtained by extracting the bark with dilute alcohol, first concentrating the alcoholic solution by vacuum distillation, then diluting the concentrate with water and discarding the oily fraction.

(c) The purified aqueous extract is safrole-free.

(d) It is used as a flavoring in food.

Sec. 172.585 Sugar beet extract flavor base.

Sugar beet extract flavor base may be safely used in food in accordance with the provisions of this section.

(a) Sugar beet extract flavor base is the concentrated residue of soluble sugar beet extractives from which sugar and glutamic acid have been recovered, and which has been subjected to ion exchange to minimize the concentration of naturally occurring trace minerals.

(b) It is used as a flavor in food.

Sec. 172.590 Yeast-malt sprout extract.

Yeast-malt sprout extract, as described in this section, may be safely used in food in accordance with the following prescribed conditions:

(a) The additive is produced by partial hydrolysis of yeast extract (derived from Saccharomyces cereviseae, Saccharomyces fragilis, or Candida utilis ) using the sprout portion of malt barley as the source of enzymes. The additive contains a maximum of 6 percent 5' nucleotides by weight.

(b) The additive may be used as a flavor enhancer in food at a level not in excess of that reasonably required to produce the intended effect.

Authority: 21 U.S.C. 321, 341, 342, 348, 371, 379e.
Source: 42 FR 14491, Mar. 15, 1977, unless otherwise noted.