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U.S. Department of Health and Human Services

CFR - Code of Federal Regulations Title 21

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[Code of Federal Regulations]
[Title 21, Volume 6]
[Revised as of April 1, 2020]
[CITE: 21CFR501]





TITLE 21--FOOD AND DRUGS
CHAPTER I--FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION
DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES
SUBCHAPTER E - ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS
 
PART 501ANIMAL FOOD LABELING
 

Subpart F - Exemptions From Animal Food Labeling Requirements

Sec. 501.100 Animal food; exemptions from labeling.

(a) The following foods are exempt from compliance with the requirements of section 403(i)(2) of the act (requiring a declaration on the label of the common or usual name of each ingredient when the food is fabricated from two or more ingredients).

(1) An assortment of different items of food, when variations in the items that make up different packages packed from such assortment normally occur in good packing practice and when such variations result in variations in the ingredients in different packages, with respect to any ingredient that is not common to all packages. Such exemption, however, shall be on the condition that the label shall bear, in conjunction with the names of such ingredients as are common to all packages, a statement (in terms that are as informative as practicable and that are not misleading) indicating by name other ingredients which may be present.

(2) A food having been received in bulk containers at a retail establishment, if displayed to the purchaser with either (i) the labeling of the bulk container plainly in view or (ii) a counter card, sign, or other appropriate device bearing prominently and conspicuously the information required to be stated on the label pursuant to section 403(i)(2) of the act.

(3) Incidental additives that are present in a food at insignificant levels and do not have any technical or functional effect in that food. For the purposes of this paragraph (a)(3), incidental additives are:

(i) Substances that have no technical or functional effect but are present in a food by reason of having been incorporated into the food as an ingredient of another food, in which the substance did have a functional or technical effect.

(ii) Processing aids, which are as follows:

(a ) Substances that are added to a food during the processing of such food but are removed in some manner from the food before it is packaged in its finished form.

(b ) Substances that are added to a food during processing, are converted into constituents normally present in the food, and do not significantly increase the amount of the constituents naturally found in the food.

(c ) Substances that are added to a food for their technical or functional effect in the processing but are present in the finished food at insignificant levels and do not have any technical or functional effect in that food.

(iii) Substances migrating to food from equipment or packaging or otherwise affecting food that are not food additives as defined in section 201(s) of the act; or if they are food additives as so defined, they are used in conformity with regulations established pursuant to section 409 of the act.

(b) A food repackaged in a retail establishment is exempt from the following provisions of the act if the conditions specified are met.

(1) Section 403(e)(1) of the act (requiring a statement on the label of the name and place of business of the manufacturer, packer, or distributor).

(2) Section 403(g)(2) of the act (requiring the label of a food which purports to be or is represented as one for which a definition and standard of identity has been prescribed to bear the name of the food specified in the definition and standard and, insofar as may be required by the regulation establishing the standard the common names of the optional ingredients present in the food), if the food is displayed to the purchaser with its interstate labeling clearly in view, or with a counter card, sign, or other appropriate device bearing prominently and conspicuously the information required by these provisions.

(3) Section 403(i)(1) of the act (requiring the label to bear the common or usual name of the food), if the food is displayed to the purchaser with its interstate labeling clearly in view, or with a counter card, sign, or other appropriate device bearing prominently and conspicuously the common or usual name of the food, or if the common or usual name of the food is clearly revealed by its appearance.

(c) [Reserved]

(d) Except as provided by paragraphs (e) and (f) of this section, a shipment or other delivery of a food which is, in accordance with the practice of the trade, to be processed, labeled, or repacked in substantial quantity at an establishment other than that where originally processed or packed, shall be exempt, during the time of introduction into and movement in interstate commerce and the time of holding in such establishment, from compliance with the labeling requirements of section 403 (c), (e), (g), (h), (i), (j) and (k) of the act if:

(1) The person who introduced such shipment or delivery into interstate commerce is the operator of the establishment where such food is to be processed, labeled, or repacked; or

(2) In case such person is not such operator, such shipment or delivery is made to such establishment under a written agreement, signed by and containing the post office addresses of such person and such operator, and containing such specifications for the processing, labeling, or repacking, as the case may be, of such food in such establishment as will ensure, if such specifications are followed, that such food will not be adulterated or misbranded within the meaning of the act upon completion of such processing, labeling, or repacking. Such person and such operator shall each keep a copy of such agreement until 2 years after the final shipment or delivery of such food from such establishment, and shall make such copies available for inspection at any reasonable hour to any officer or employee of the Department who requests them.

(e) Conditions affecting expiration of exemptions.

(1) An exemption of a shipment or other delivery of a food under paragraph (d)(1) of this section shall, at the beginning of the act of removing such shipment or delivery, or any part thereof, from such establishment become void ab initio if the food comprising such shipment, delivery, or part is adulterated or misbranded within the meaning of the act when so removed.

(2) An exemption of a shipment or other delivery of a food under paragraph (d)(2) of this section shall become void ab initio with respect to the person who introduced such shipment or delivery into interstate commerce upon refusal by such person to make available for inspection a copy of the agreement, as required by paragraph (d)(2) of this section.

(3) An exemption of a shipment or other delivery of a food under paragraph (d)(2) of this section shall expire:

(i) At the beginning of the act of removing such shipment or delivery, or any part thereof, from such establishment if the food comprising such shipment, delivery, or part is adulterated or misbranded within the meaning of the act when so removed; or

(ii) Upon refusal by the operator of the establishment where such food is to be processed, labeled, or repacked, to make available for inspection a copy of the agreement as required by such paragraph.

(f) [Reserved]

(g) The label declaration of a harmless marker used to identify a particular manufacturer's product may result in unfair competition through revealing a trade secret. Exemption from the label declaration of such a marker is granted, therefore, provided that the following conditions are met:

(1) The person desiring to use the marker without label declaration of its presence has submitted to the Commissioner of Food and Drugs full information concerning the proposed usage and the reasons why he believes label declaration of the marker should be subject to this exemption; and

(2) The person requesting the exemption has received from the Commissioner of Food and Drugs a finding that the marker is harmless and that the exemption has been granted.

Sec. 501.103 Petitions requesting exemptions from or special requirements for label declaration of ingredients.

The Commissioner of Food and Drugs, either on his own initiative or on behalf of any interested person who has submitted a petition pursuant to part 10 of this chapter may issue a proposal to amend § 501.4 to specify the manner in which an ingredient(s) shall be declared, i.e., by specific or class name, or § 501.100 to exempt an ingredient(s) from the requirements for label declaration.

[41 FR 38619, Sept. 10, 1976, as amended at 42 FR 15675, Mar. 22, 1977]

Sec. 501.105 Declaration of net quantity of contents when exempt.

(a) The principal display panel of a food in package form shall bear a declaration of the net quantity of contents. This shall be expressed in the terms of weight, measure, numerical count, or a combination of numerical count and weight or measure. The statement shall be in terms of fluid measure if the food is liquid, or in terms of weight if the food is solid, semisolid, or viscous, or a mixture of solid and liquid; except that such statement may be in terms of dry measure if the food is a fresh fruit, fresh vegetable, or other dry commodity that is customarily sold by dry measure. If there is a firmly established general consumer usage and trade custom of declaring the contents of a liquid by weight, or a solid, semisolid, or viscous product by fluid measure, it may be used. Whenever the Commissioner determines that an existing practice of declaring net quantity of contents by weight, measure, numerical count, or a combination in the case of a specific packaged food does not facilitate value comparisons by consumers and offers opportunity for consumer confusion, he will by regulation designate the appropriate term or terms to be used for such commodity.

(b)(1) Statements of weight shall be in terms of avoirdupois pound and ounce.

(2) Statements of fluid measure shall be in terms of the U.S. gallon of 231 cubic inches and quart, pint, and fluid ounce subdivisions thereof, and shall:

(i) In the case of frozen food that is sold and consumed in a frozen state, express the volume at the frozen temperature.

(ii) In the case of refrigerated food that is sold in the refrigerated state, express the volume at 40 deg.F (4 deg.C).

(iii) In the case of other foods, express the volume at 68 deg.F (20 deg.C).

(3) Statements of dry measure shall be in terms of the U.S. bushel of 2,150.42 cubic inches and peck, dry quart, and dry pint subdivisions thereof.

(c) When the declaration of quantity of contents by numerical count does not give adequate information as to the quantity of food in the package, it shall be combined with such statement of weight, measure, or size of the individual units of the foods as will provide such information.

(d) The declaration may contain common or decimal fractions. A common fraction shall be in terms of halves, quarters, eighths, sixteenths, or thirty-seconds; except that if there exists a firmly established general consumer usage and trade custom of employing different common fractions in the net quantity declaration of a particular commodity, they may be employed. A common fraction shall be reduced to its lowest terms; a decimal fraction shall not be carried out to more than two places. A statement that includes small fractions of an ounce shall be deemed to permit smaller variations than one which does not include such fractions.

(e) The declaration shall be located on the principal display panel of the label, and with respect to packages bearing alternate principal panels it shall be duplicated on each principal display panel.

(f) The declaration shall appear as a distinct item on the principal display panel, shall be separated (by at least a space equal to the height of the lettering used in the declaration) from other printed label information appearing above or below the declaration and (by at least a space equal to twice the width of the letter "N" of the style of type used in the quantity of contents statement) from other printed label information appearing to the left or right of the declaration. It shall not include any term qualifying a unit of weight, measure, or count (such as jumbo quart and full gallon ) that tends to exaggerate the amount of the food in the container. It shall be placed on the principal display panel within the bottom 30 percent of the area of the label panel in lines generally parallel to the base on which the package rests as it is designed to be displayed: Provided, That on packages having a principal display panel of 5 square inches or less, the requirement for placement within the bottom 30 percent of the area of the label panel shall not apply when the declaration of net quantity of contents meets the other requirements of this part.

(g) The declaration shall accurately reveal the quantity of food in the package exclusive of wrappers and other material packed therewith; provided that in the case of foods packed in containers designed to deliver the food under pressure, the declaration shall state the net quantity of the contents that will be expelled when the instructions for use as shown on the container are followed. The propellant is included in the net quantity declaration.

(h) The declaration shall appear in conspicuous and easily legible boldface print or type in distinct contrast (by typography, layout, color, embossing, or molding) to other matter on the package; except that a declaration of net quantity blown, embossed, or molded on a glass or plastic surface is permissible when all label information is so formed on the surface. Requirements of conspicuousness and legibility shall include the specifications that:

(1) The ratio of height to width (of the letter) shall not exceed a differential of 3 units to 1 unit (no more than 3 times as high as it is wide).

(2) Letter heights pertain to upper case or capital letters. When upper and lower case or all lower case letters are used, it is the lower case letter "o" or its equivalent that shall meet the minimum standards.

(3) When fractions are used, each component numeral shall meet one-half the minimum height standards.

(i) The declaration shall be in letters and numerals in a type size established in relationship to the area of the principal display panel of the package and shall be uniform for all packages of substantially the same size by complying with the following type specifications:

(1) Not less than 1/16 inch in height on packages the principal display panel of which has an area of 5 square inches or less.

(2) Not less than 1/8 inch in height on packages the principal display panel of which has an area of more than 5 but not more than 25 square inches.

(3) Not less than 3/16 inch in height on packages the principal display panel of which has an area of more than 25 but not more than 100 square inches.

(4) Not less than 1/4 inch in height on packages the principal display panel of which has an area of more than 100 square inches, except not less than 1/2 inch in height if the area is more than 400 square inches.

Where the declaration is blown, embossed, or molded on a glass or plastic surface rather than by printing, typing, or coloring, the lettering sizes specified in paragraphs (i) (1) through (4) of this section shall be increased by 1/16 of an inch.

(j) On packages containing less than 4 pounds or 1 gallon and labeled in terms of weight or fluid measure:

(1) The declaration shall be expressed both in ounces, with identification by weight or by liquid measure and, if applicable (1 pound or 1 pint or more) followed in parentheses by a declaration in pounds for weight units, with any remainder in terms of ounces or common or decimal fractions of the pound (see examples set forth in paragraphs (m) (1) and (2) of this section), or in the case of liquid measure, in the largest whole units (quarts, quarts and pints, or pints, as appropriate) with any remainder in terms of fluid ounces or common or decimal fractions of the pint or quart (see examples in paragraphs (m) (3) and (4) of this section).

(2) If the net quantity of contents declaration appears on a random package, that is a package which is one of a lot, shipment, or delivery of packages of the same consumer commodity with varying weights and with no fixed weight pattern, it may, when the net weight exceeds 1 pound, be expressed in terms of pounds and decimal fractions of the pound carried out to not more than two decimal places. When the net weight does not exceed 1 pound, the declaration on the random package may be in decimal fractions of the pound in lieu of ounces (see example in paragraph (m)(5) of this section).

(3) The declaration may appear in more than one line. The term net weight shall be used when stating the net quantity of contents in terms of weight. Use of the terms net or net contents in terms of fluid measure or numerical count is optional. It is sufficient to distinguish avoirdupois ounce from fluid ounce through association of terms; for example, Net wt. 6 oz. or 6 oz. net wt. and 6 fl. oz. or net contents 6 fl. oz.

(k) On packages containing 4 pounds or 1 gallon or more and labeled in terms of weight or fluid measure, the declaration shall be expressed in pounds for weight units with any remainder in terms of ounces or common or decimal fraction of the pound, or in the case of fluid measure, it shall be expressed in the largest whole unit (gallons followed by common or decimal fraction of a gallon or by the next smaller whole unit or units (quarts, or quarts and pints)) with any remainder in terms of fluid ounces or common or decimal fractions of the pint or quart (see paragraph (m)(6) of this section).

(l) [Reserved]

(m) Examples: (1) A declaration of 1 1/2 pounds weight shall be expressed as Net Wt. 24 oz. (1 lb. 8 oz.), Net Wt. 24 oz. (1 1/2 lb.), or Net Wt. 24 oz. (1.5 lb.).

(2) A declaration of 3/4 pound avoirdupois weight shall be expressed as Net Wt. 12 oz.

(3) A declaration of 1 quart liquid measure shall be expressed as Net 32 fl. oz. (1 qt.).

(4) A declaration of 1 3/4 quarts liquid measure shall be expressed as Net contents 56 fluid ounces (1 quart 1 1/2 pints) or as Net 56 fluid oz. (1 qt. 1 pt. 8 oz.), but not in terms of quart and ounce such as Net 56 fluid oz. (1 quart 24 ounces).

(5) On a random package, declaration of 3/4 pound avoirdupois may be expressed as Net Wt. .75 lb.

(6) A declaration of 2 1/2 gallons liquid measure shall be expressed as Net contents 2 1/2 gallons, Net contents 2.5 gallons, or Net contents 2 gallons 2 quarts and not as 2 gallons 4 pints.

(n) For quantities, the following abbreviations and none other may be employed (periods and plural forms are optional):

(o) Nothing in this section shall prohibit supplemental statements at locations other than the principal display panel(s) describing in nondeceptive terms the net quantity of contents; provided, that such supplemental statements of net quantity of contents shall not include any term qualifying a unit of weight, measure, or count that tends to exaggerate the amount of the food contained in the package; for example, jumbo quart and full gallon. Dual or combination declarations of net quantity of contents as provided for in paragraphs (a), (c), and (j) of this section (for example, a combination of net weight plus numerical count, net contents plus dilution directions of a concentrate, etc.) are not regarded as supplemental net quantity statements and may be located on the principal display panel.

(p) A separate statement of the net quantity of contents in terms of the metric system is not regarded as a supplemental statement and an accurate statement of the net quantity of contents in terms of the metric system of weight or measure may also appear on the principal display panel or on other panels.

(q) The declaration of net quantity of contents shall express an accurate statement of the quantity of contents of the package. Reasonable variations caused by loss or gain of moisture during the course of good distribution practice or by unavoidable deviations in good manufacturing practice will be recognized. Variations from stated quantity of contents shall not be unreasonably large.

(r) [Reserved]

(s) On a multiunit retail package, a statement of the quantity of contents shall appear on the outside of the package and shall include the number of individual units, the quantity of each individual unit, and, in parentheses, the total quantity of contents of the multiunit package in terms of avoirdupois or fluid ounces, except that such declaration of total quantity need not be followed by an additional parenthetical declaration in terms of the largest whole units and subdivisions thereof, as required by paragraph (j)(1) of this section. A multiunit retail package may thus be properly labeled: 6-16 oz. bottles - (96 fl. oz.) or 3-16 oz. cans - (net wt. 48 oz). For the purposes of this section, multiunit retail package means a package containing two or more individually packaged units of the identical commodity and in the same quantity, intended to be sold as part of the multiunit retail package but capable of being individually sold in full compliance with all requirements of the regulations in this part. Open multiunit retail packages that do not obscure the number of units nor prevent examination of the labeling on each of the individual units are not subject to this paragraph if the labeling of each individual unit complies with the requirements of paragraphs (f) and (i) of this section.

(t) Where the declaration of net quantity of contents is in terms of net weight and/or drained weight or volume and does not accurately reflect the actual quantity of the contents or the product falls below the applicable standard of fill of container because of equipment malfunction or otherwise unintentional product variation, and the label conforms in all other respects to the requirements of this chapter (except the requirement that food falling below the applicable standard of fill of container shall bear the general statement of substandard fill specified in § 564.14(b) of this chapter), the mislabeled food product, including any food product that fails to bear the general statement of substandard fill specified in § 564.14(b) of this chapter, may be sold by the manufacturer or processor directly to institutions operated by Federal, State or local governments: Provided, That:

(1) The purchaser shall sign a statement at the time of sale stating that he is aware that the product is mislabeled to include acknowledgement of the nature and extent of the mislabeling, e.g., "Actual net weight may be as low as __% below labeled quantity" and that any subsequent distribution by him of said product except for his own institutional use is unlawful. This statement shall be kept on file at the principal place of business of the manufacturer or processor for 2 years subsequent to the date of shipment of the product and shall be available to the Food and Drug Administration upon request.

(2) The product shall be labeled on the outside of its shipping container with the statement(s):

(i) When the variation concerns net weight and/or drained weight of volume - "Product Mislabeled. Actual net weight (drained weight or volume where appropriate) may be as low as __% below labeled quantity. This Product Not for Retail Distribution," the blank to be filled in with the maximum percentage variance between the labeled and actual weight or volume of contents of the individual packages in the shipping container, and

(ii) When the variation is in regard to a fill of container standard - "Product Mislabeled. Actual fill may be as low as __% below standard of fill. This Product Not for Retail Distribution."

(3) The statements required by paragraphs (t)(2) (i) and (ii) of this section, which may be consolidated where appropriate, shall appear prominently and conspicuously as compared to other printed matter on the shipping container and in boldface print or type on a clear, contrasting background in order to render them likely to be read and understood by the purchaser under ordinary conditions of purchase.

weight wt.

ounce oz.

pound lb.

gallon gal.

pint pt.

quart qt.

fluid fl.

[41 FR 38619, Sept. 10, 1976, as amended at 54 FR 18279, Apr. 28, 1989]

Sec. 501.110 Animal feed labeling; collective names for feed ingredients.

(a) An animal feed shall be exempt from the requirements of section 403(i)(2) of the act with respect to its label bearing the common or usual names of the animal feed ingredients listed in paragraph (b) of this section under the following prescribed conditions:

(1) The animal feed is intended solely for livestock and poultry.

(2) The label of the animal feed bears the collective name(s) prescribed in paragraph (b) of this section in lieu of the corresponding common or usual names of the individual feed ingredients contained therein.

(3) The label of the animal feed otherwise conforms to the requirements of section 403(i)(2) of the act.

(4) The ingredients of any feed listed in paragraph (b) of this section neither contain nor are food additives as defined in section 201(s) of the act unless provided for by and in conformity with applicable regulations established pursuant to section 409 of the act.

(b) Each collective name referred to in this paragraph may be used for the purpose of labeling where one or more of the ingredients listed for that collective name are present. The animal feed ingredients listed under each of the collective names are the products defined by the Association of American Feed Control Officials. The collective names are as follows:

(1) Animal protein products include one or more of the following: Animal products, marine products, and milk products.

(2) Forage products include one or more of the following: Alfalfa meals, entire plant meals, hays, and stem meals.

(3) Grain products include one or more of the following: Barley, grain sorghums, maize (corn), oats, rice, rye, and wheat.

(4) Plant protein products include one or more of the following: Algae meals, coconut meals (copra), cottonseed meals, guar meal, linseed meals, peanut meals, safflower meals, soybean meals, sunflower meals, and yeasts.

(5) Processed grain byproducts include one or more of the following: Brans, brewers dried grains, distillers grains, distillers solubles, flours, germ meals, gluten feeds, gluten meals, grits, groats, hominy feeds, malt sprouts, middlings, pearled, polishings, shorts, and wheat mill run.

(6) Roughage products include one or more of the following: Cobs, hulls, husks, pulps, and straws.

Authority: 15 U.S.C. 1453, 1454, 1455; 21 U.S.C. 321, 331, 342, 343, 348, 371.
Source: 41 FR 38619, Sept. 10, 1976, unless otherwise noted.

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