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U.S. Department of Health and Human Services

CFR - Code of Federal Regulations Title 21

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The information on this page is current as of April 1 2017.

For the most up-to-date version of CFR Title 21, go to the Electronic Code of Federal Regulations (eCFR).

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Help | More About 21CFR
[Code of Federal Regulations]
[Title 21, Volume 7]
[Revised as of April 1, 2017]
[CITE: 21CFR640]





TITLE 21--FOOD AND DRUGS
CHAPTER I--FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION
DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES
SUBCHAPTER F--BIOLOGICS
 
PART 640ADDITIONAL STANDARDS FOR HUMAN BLOOD AND BLOOD PRODUCTS
 

Subpart A--Whole Blood

Sec. 640.1 Whole Blood.

The proper name of this product shall be Whole Blood. Whole Blood is defined as blood collected from human donors for transfusion to human recipients.

[38 FR 32089, Nov. 20, 1973, as amended at 50 FR 4138, Jan. 29, 1985]

Sec. 640.2 General requirements.

(a) Manufacturing responsibility. All manufacturing of Whole Blood, including donor examination, blood collection, laboratory tests, labeling, storage and issue, shall be done under the supervision and control of the same licensed establishment except that the Director, Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research, may approve arrangements, upon joint request of two or more licensed establishments, which he finds are of such a nature as to assure compliance otherwise with the provisions of this subchapter.

(b) Blood container. The blood container shall not be entered prior to issue for any purpose except for blood collection or when the method of processing requires use of a different container. The container shall be uncolored and transparent to permit visual inspection of the contents and any closure shall be such as will maintain a hermetic seal and prevent contamination of the contents. The container material shall not interact with the contents under the customary conditions of storage and use, in such a manner as to have an adverse effect upon the safety, purity, or potency of the blood.

(c) Reissue of blood. Blood that has been removed from storage controlled by a licensed establishment shall not be reissued by a licensed establishment unless the following conditions are observed:

(1) The container has a tamper-proof seal when originally issued and this seal remains unbroken;

(2) A segment is properly attached and has not been removed, except that blood lacking a properly attached segment may be reissued in an emergency provided it is accompanied by instructions for sampling and for use within 6 hours after entering the container for sampling;

(3) The blood has been stored continuously at 1 to 6 deg. C and shipped between 1 and 10 deg. C;

(4) The blood is held for observation until a significant inspection consistent with the requirements of 640.5(e) can be made.

[38 FR 32089, Nov. 20, 1973, as amended at 41 FR 4015, Jan. 28, 1976; 42 FR 59878, Nov. 22, 1977; 43 FR 34460, Aug. 4, 1978; 49 FR 15187, Apr. 18, 1984; 49 FR 23834, June 8, 1984; 50 FR 4138, Jan. 29, 1985; 53 FR 116, Jan. 5, 1988; 55 FR 11013, Mar. 26, 1990; 63 FR 16685, Apr. 6, 1998; 64 FR 45371, Aug. 19, 1999; 66 FR 1836, Jan. 10, 2001; 66 FR 31165, June 11, 2001; 66 FR 40889, Aug. 6, 2001; 67 FR 9587, Mar. 4, 2002]

Sec. 640.4 Collection of the blood.

(a) [Reserved]

(b) The donor center. The pertinent requirements of 600.10 and 600.11 of this chapter shall apply at both the blood establishment and at any other place where the bleeding is performed.

(c) Blood containers. Blood containers and donor sets shall be pyrogen-free, sterile and identified by lot number. The amount of anticoagulant required for the quantity of blood to be collected shall be in the blood container when it is sterilized. In addition, all container and donor set surfaces that come in contact with blood used in the processing of Heparin Whole Blood shall be water repellent.

(d) The anticoagulant solution. The anticoagulant solution shall be sterile and pyrogen-free. Anticoagulant solutions shall be compounded and used according to a formula approved by the Director, Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research.

(e) Donor identification. Each unit of blood shall be so marked or identified by number or other symbol as to relate it to the individual donor whose identity shall be established to the extent necessary for compliance with 630.10 of this chapter.

(f) Prevention of contamination of the blood. The skin of the donor at the site of phlebotomy shall be prepared thoroughly and carefully by a method that gives maximum assurance of a sterile container of blood. The blood shall be collected by aseptic methods in a sterile system which may be closed or may be vented if the vent protects the blood against contamination.

(g) Samples and segments for laboratory tests. Samples and segments for laboratory tests shall meet the following standards:

(1) One or more segments shall be provided with each unit of blood when issued or reissued except as provided in 640.2(c)(2) and all segments shall be from the donor who is the source of the unit of blood.

(2) All samples for laboratory tests performed by the manufacturer and all segments accompanying a unit of blood shall be collected at the time of filling the original blood container.

(3) All containers for all samples shall bear the donor's identification before collecting the samples.

(4) All segments accompanying a unit of blood shall be attached to the whole blood container before blood collection, in a tamperproof manner that will conspicuously indicate removal and reattachment.

(5) Segments for compatibility testing shall contain blood mixed with the appropriate anticoagulant.

(h) Storage. Whole Blood must be placed in storage at a temperature between 1 and 6 deg. C immediately after collection unless the blood is to be further processed into another component or the blood must be transported from the donor center to the processing laboratory. If transported, the blood must be placed in temporary storage having sufficient refrigeration capacity to cool the blood continuously toward a temperature range between 1 and 10 deg. C until arrival at the processing laboratory. At the processing laboratory, the blood must be stored at a temperature between 1 and 6 deg. C. Blood from which a component is to be prepared must be held in an environment maintained at a temperature range specified for that component in the directions for use for the blood collecting, processing, and storage system approved for such use by the Director, CBER.

[38 FR 32089, Nov. 20, 1973, as amended at 42 FR 59878, Nov. 22, 1977; 43 FR 34460, Aug. 4, 1978; 49 FR 23834, June 8, 1984; 50 FR 4138, Jan. 29, 1985; 55 FR 11013, Mar. 26, 1990; 64 FR 45372, Aug. 19, 1999; 66 FR 1836, Jan. 10, 2001; 66 FR 40889, Aug. 6, 2001; 72 FR 45887, Aug. 16, 2007; 73 FR 7464, Feb. 8, 2008; 80 FR 29904, May 22, 2015]

Sec. 640.5 Testing the blood.

All laboratory tests shall be made on a specimen of blood taken from the donor, and these tests shall include the following:

(a) [Reserved]

(b) Determination of blood group. Each container of Whole Blood shall be classified as to ABO blood group. At least two blood group tests shall be made and the unit shall not be issued until grouping tests by different methods or with different lots of antiserums are in agreement. Only those Anti-A and Anti-B Blood Grouping Reagents licensed under, or that otherwise meet the requirements of, the regulations of this subchapter shall be used, and the technique used shall be that for which the serum is specifically designed to be effective.

(c) Determination of the Rh factors. Each container of Whole Blood shall be classified as to Rh type on the basis of tests done on the sample. The label shall indicate the extent of typing and the results of all tests performed. If the test, using Anti-D Blood Grouping Reagent, is positive, the container may be labeled "Rh Positive." If the test is negative, the results shall be confirmed by further testing which shall include tests for the "weak D (formerly D u)." Blood may be labeled "Rh Negative" if further testing is negative. Units testing positive after additional more specific testing shall be labeled as "Rh Positive." Only Anti-Rh Blood Grouping Reagents licensed under, or that otherwise meet the requirements of, this subchapter shall be used, and the technique used shall be that for which the reagent is specifically designed to be effective.

(d) Sterility test. Whole Blood intended for transfusion shall not be tested for sterility by a method that entails entering the final container before the blood is used for transfusion.

(e) Inspection. Whole Blood shall be inspected visually during storage and immediately prior to issue. If the color or physical appearance is abnormal or there is any indication or suspicion of microbial contamination the unit of Whole Blood shall not be issued for transfusion.

(f) Test for relevant transfusion-transmitted infections. Whole Blood shall be tested for evidence of infection due to relevant transfusion-transmitted infections as required under 610.40 of this chapter.

[38 FR 32089, Nov. 20, 1973, as amended at 50 FR 4138, Jan. 29, 1985; 53 FR 117, Jan. 5, 1988; 53 FR 12764, Apr. 19, 1988; 64 FR 45372, Aug. 19, 1999; 66 FR 1836, Jan. 10, 2001; 66 FR 31165, June 11, 2001; 66 FR 40889, Aug. 6, 2001; 80 FR 29904, May 22, 2015]

Sec. 640.6 Modifications of Whole Blood.

Upon approval by the Director, Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research, of a supplement to the biologics license application for Whole Blood a manufacturer may prepare Whole Blood from which the antihemophilic factor has been removed, provided the Whole Blood meets the applicable requirements of this subchapter and the following conditions are met:

(a) The antihemophilic factor shall be removed in accordance with paragraphs (a), (b), and (c) of 640.52.

(b) Although the closed system between the red blood cells and plasma shall be maintained, the red blood cells shall be maintained between 1 and 6 deg. C at all times, including that time when the plasma is being frozen for removal of the antihemophilic factor.

[38 FR 32089, Nov. 20, 1973, as amended at 49 FR 23834, June 8, 1984; 50 FR 4138, Jan. 29, 1985; 55 FR 11013, Mar. 26, 1990; 59 FR 49351, Sept. 28, 1994; 64 FR 45372, Aug. 19, 1999; 64 FR 56453, Oct. 20, 1999]

Authority: 21 U.S.C. 321, 351, 352, 353, 355, 360, 371; 42 U.S.C. 216, 262, 263, 263a, 264.
Source: 38 FR 32089, Nov. 20, 1973, unless otherwise noted.

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