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U.S. Department of Health and Human Services

CFR - Code of Federal Regulations Title 21

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The information on this page is current as of Dec 22, 2023.

For the most up-to-date version of CFR Title 21, go to the Electronic Code of Federal Regulations (eCFR).

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Help | More About 21CFR
[Code of Federal Regulations]
[Title 21, Volume 2]
[CITE: 21CFR106.3]



Subpart A - General Provisions

Sec. 106.3 Definitions.

The definitions in this section and the definitions contained in section 201 of the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act (21 U.S.C. 321) shall apply to infant formula requirements in 21 CFR parts 106 and 107 of this chapter.

Eligible infant formula means an infant formula that could be lawfully distributed in the United States on December 8, 2014.

Final product stage means the point in the manufacturing process, before distribution of an infant formula, at which the infant formula is homogeneous and is not subject to further degradation due to processing.

Indicator nutrient means a nutrient whose concentration is measured during the manufacture of an infant formula to confirm complete addition and uniform distribution of a premix or other substance of which the indicator nutrient is a part.

Infant means a person not more than 12 months of age.

Infant formula means a food which purports to be or is represented for special dietary use solely as a food for infants by reason of its simulation of human milk or its suitability as a complete or partial substitute for human milk.

In-process production aggregate means a combination of ingredients at any point in the manufacturing process before packaging.

Major change in an infant formula means any new formulation, or any change of ingredients or processes where experience or theory would predict a possible significant adverse impact on levels of nutrients or bioavailability of nutrients, or any change that causes an infant formula to differ fundamentally in processing or in composition from any previous formulation produced by the manufacturer. Examples of infant formulas deemed to differ fundamentally in processing or in composition include:

(1) Any infant formula produced by a manufacturer who is entering the U.S. market;

(2) Any infant formula powder processed and distributed by a manufacturer who previously only produced liquids (or vice versa);

(3) Any infant formula having a significant revision, addition, or substitution of a macronutrient (i.e., protein, fat, or carbohydrate), with which the manufacturer has not had previous experience;

(4) Any infant formula manufactured on a new processing line or in a new plant;

(5) Any infant formula manufactured containing a new constituent not listed in section 412(i) of the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act (21 U.S.C. 350a(i)), such as taurine or L-carnitine;

(6) Any infant formula processed by a manufacturer on new equipment that utilizes a new technology or principle (e.g., from terminal sterilization to aseptic processing); or

(7) An infant formula for which there has been a fundamental change in the type of packaging used (e.g., changing from metal cans to plastic pouches).

Manufacturer means a person who prepares, reconstitutes, or otherwise changes the physical or chemical characteristics of an infant formula or packages or labels the product in a container for distribution. The term "manufacturer" does not include a person who prepares, reconstitutes, or mixes infant formula exclusively for an infant under his/her direct care or the direct care of the institution employing such person.

Microorganisms means yeasts, molds, bacteria, and viruses and includes, but is not limited to, species having public health significance.

New infant formula means:

(1) An infant formula manufactured by a person that has not previously manufactured an infant formula, and

(2) An infant formula manufactured by a person that has previously manufactured infant formula and in which there is a major change in processing or formulation from a current or any previous formulation produced by such manufacturer, or which has not previously been the subject of a submission under section 412(c) of the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act for the U.S. market.

Nutrient means any vitamin, mineral, or other substance or ingredient that is required in accordance with the "Nutrients" table set out in section 412(i)(1) of the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act or by regulations issued under section 412(i)(2) or that is identified as essential for infants by the Food and Nutrition Board of the Institute of Medicine through its development of a Dietary Reference Intake, or that has been identified as essential for infants by the Food and Drug Administration through a Federal Register publication.

Nutrient premix means a combination of ingredients containing two or more nutrients received from a supplier or prepared by an infant formula manufacturer.

Production aggregate means a quantity of product, or, in the case of an infant formula produced by continuous process, a specific identified amount produced in a unit of time, that is intended to have uniform composition, character, and quality, within specified limits, and is produced according to a master manufacturing order.

Production unit means a specific quantity of an infant formula produced during a single cycle of manufacture that has uniform composition, character, and quality, within specified limits.

Production unit number or production aggregate number means any distinctive combination of letters, numbers, symbols, or any combination of them, from which the complete history of the manufacture, processing, packing, holding, and distribution of a production aggregate or a production unit of infant formula can be determined.

Quality factors means those factors necessary to demonstrate the safety of the infant formula and the bioavailability of its nutrients, as prepared for market and when fed as the sole source of nutrition, to ensure the healthy growth of infants.

Representative sample means a sample that consists of a number of units that are drawn based on rational criteria, such as random sampling, and intended to ensure that the sample accurately portrays the material being sampled.

Shall is used to state mandatory requirements.

[79 FR 8059, Feb. 10, 2014, as amended at 79 FR 33070, June 10, 2014]