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U.S. Department of Health and Human Services

SCOGS (Select Committee on GRAS Substances)

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This database allows access to opinions and conclusions from 115 SCOGS reports* published between 1972-1980 on the safety of over 370 Generally Recognized As Safe (GRAS) food substances. The GRAS ingredient reviews were conducted by the Select Committee in response to a 1969 White House directive by President Richard M. Nixon (see History of GRAS and SCOGS).

The SCOGS database allows users to search for the SCOGS opinion and conclusion, and includes the United States Code of Federal Regulations (21 CFR) citation for those GRAS food substances that have been codified in the CFR. Many of the SCOGS reports reviewed more than one GRAS substance and each substance was evaluated and assigned its own individual type of conclusion on safety; Type 1, 2, 3, 4, or 5, as shown in the table below.**

The SCOGS Conclusions were made by scientific experts outside of FDA. The complete background of the Select Committee is described in the History of GRAS and SCOGS.


Search and display hints:

  • Select the GRAS substance below to view the record details, including the SCOGS opinion.
  • Select the CFR reference below to view the 21 CFR regulations.
  • Select the NTIS Accession Number below to retrieve the full report from NTIS.
  • To sort by a specific field, click on the column header for that field.
  • To browse the records, use the Show All, First/Previous/Next/Last, and Jump To options at the bottom of the data table.
  • To search for a specific substance/term, enter the term in the Search box and select Show Items to display only those records that contain the selected term.
Download SCOGS (Select Committee on GRAS Substances) data in Microsoft Excel web format Download data from this searchable database in Excel format. If you need help accessing information in different file formats, see Instructions for Downloading Viewers and Players.
Search within these results
Records Found: 381 Show All Page 2 of 8
GRAS Substance
(sorted A-Z)
SCOGS
Report
Number
CAS Reg. No.
or other
ID Code
Year of
Report
SCOGS
Type of
Conclusion**
21 CFR
Regulation
NTIS
Accession
Number*
Calcium hexametaphosphate 32 10102-76-8 1975 1 PB262651
Calcium hydroxide 72 1305-62-0 1975 1 184.1205 PB254540
Calcium hypophosphite 73 7789-79-9 1977 1 PB274476
Calcium iodate 39 7789-80-2 1975 1 184.1206 PB254533
Calcium L-ascorbate 59 5743-28-2 1979 1 182.3189 PB80128796
Calcium Lactate 116 814-80-2 1978 1 184.1207 PB283713
L(+)-calcium lactate 116 28305-25-1 1978 1 184.1207 PB283713
Calcium oxide 72 1305-78-8 1975 1 184.1210 PB254540
D- or DL- Calcium pantothenate 93 137-08-6 1978 1 184.1212 PB288672
Calcium phosphate dibasic 32 7757-93-9 1975 1 PB262651
Calcium phosphate monobasic 32 10031-30-8 1975 1 PB262651
Calcium phosphate tribasic 32 12167-74-7 1975 1 PB262651
Calcium phytate 45 3615-82-5 1975 1 582.6219 PB254539
Calcium propionate 79 4075-81-4 1979 1 184.1221 PB80104599
Calcium pyrophosphate 32 7790-76-3 1975 1 182.8223 PB262651
Calcium silicate 61 1344-95-2 1979 1 182.2227 PB301402
Calcium sorbate 57 7492-55-9 1975 1 182.3225 PB262663
Calcium stearate 54 1592-23-0 1975 1 181.29
184.1229
PB262661
Caprylic Acid 29 124-07-2 1974 1 184.1025 PB254530
Caramel 20 8028-89-5 1973 1 182.1235 PB266880
Carbon dioxide 117 124-38-9 1979 1 184.1240 PB80104615
Carbonyl Iron 35 7439-89-6 1980 2 184.1375 PB80178676
Carbonyl Iron (packaging) 35 7439-89-6 1980 2 184.1375 PB80178676
Carboxymethyl cellulose (packaging) 25 9000-11-7 1973 1 PB274667
Carnauba wax 47 8015-86-9 1975 5 184.1978 PB262658
Carob Bean Gum 3 9000-40-2 1972 2 184.1343 PB221952
Carotene (beta-carotene) 111 7235-40-7 1979 1 184.1245 PB80119837
Carrageenan 6 9000-07-1 1973 3 172.620 PB266877
Casein 96 9000-71-9 1979 1 PB301401
Enzymatically hydrolyzed casein 37b 9000-71-9 1980 1 PB80178643
Cellulose 25 9004-34-6 1973 1 PB274667
Cellulose acetate(packaging) 25 9004-35-7 1973 1 182.90 PB274667
Cellulose, microcrystalline 25 977005-28-9 1973 1 PB274667
Cholic acid 44 81-25-4 1975 1 PB254524
Choline Bitartrate 42 87-67-2 1975 1 182.8250 PB262654
Choline Chloride 42 67-48-1 1975 1 182.8252 PB262654
Citric acid 84 77-92-9 1977 1 184.1033 PB280954
Clay (kaolin) (packaging) 90 1332-58-7 1977 1 186.1256 PB276416
Clove Bud Extract 19 84961-50-2 1973 1 184.1257 PB238792
Clove Bud Oil 19 8000-34-8 1973 1 184.1257 PB238792
Clove Bud Oleoresin 19 977017-85-8 1973 1 184.1257 PB238792
Clove Leaf Oil 19 8000-34-8 1973 1 184.1257 PB238792
Clove Stem Oil 19 8000-34-8 1973 1 184.1257 PB238792
Coconut oil (packaging) 65 8001-31-8 1975 1 PB274475
Copper (cupric) gluconate 98 7440-50-8 1979 1 184.1260 PB301400
Copper (cupric) sulfate 98 7758-98-7 1979 1 184.1261 PB301400
Corn silk 87 977000-79-5 1977 5 184.1262 PB278158
Corn Sugar (Dextrose) 50 50-99-7 1976 2 184.1857 PB262659
Corn Syrup 50 8029-43-4 1976 2 184.1865 PB262659
Cornstarch 115 977050-51-3 1979 1 182.70
182.90
PB80128804

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Definitions of labels

  • GRAS Substances: A food substance that is not subject to premarket review and approval by FDA because it is generally recognized, by qualified experts, to be safe under the intended conditions of use.
  • SCOGS Report Number: Number of the report that contains details of the safety studies that formed the basis of the opinion made by the committee.
  • CAS Reg. No. or other ID Code: Chemical Abstract Services (CAS) Registry Number for the substance or a numerical code assigned by CFSAN to those substances that do not have a CAS Registry Number (977nnn-nn-n series).
  • Year of Report: The year that the SCOGS report was issued.
  • SCOGS Type of Conclusion: Opinion and Conclusion by the Select Committee on GRAS Substance Review about the safety of a GRAS substance. See SCOGS Conclusions.
  • 21 CFR Regulation: Citation in Title 21 of the U.S. Code of Federal Regulations if the substance is subject to a regulation.
  • *NTIS Accession Number: Order number of the full report containing details of the safety studies that formed the basis of the opinions and conclusions that is available from the National Technical Information Service (NTIS); search the accession number in the NTRL (National Technical Reports Library).

**SCOGS Type of Conclusion Definition
1There is no evidence in the available information on [substance] that demonstrates, or suggests reasonable grounds to suspect, a hazard to the public when they are used at levels that are now current or might reasonably be expected in the future.
2 There is no evidence in the available information on [substance] that demonstrates a hazard to the public when it is used at levels that are now current and in the manner now practiced. However, it is not possible to determine, without additional data, whether a significant increase in consumption would constitute a dietary hazard.
3 While no evidence in the available information on [substance] demonstrates a hazard to the public when it is used at levels that are now current and in the manner now practiced, uncertainties exist requiring that additional studies be conducted.
4The evidence on [substance] is insufficient to determine that the adverse effects reported are not deleterious to the public health should it be used at former levels and in the manner formerly practiced.
5In view of the almost complete lack of biological studies, the Select Committee has insufficient data upon which to evaluate the safety of [substance] as a [intended use].
GRAS Substance
(sorted A-Z)
SCOGS
Report
Number
CAS Reg. No.
or other
ID Code
Year of
Report
SCOGS
Type of
Conclusion**
21 CFR
Regulation
NTIS
Accession
Number*

679661  

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