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U.S. Department of Health and Human Services

FDA Poisonous Plant Database

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AUTHOR(S): Core, E. L.; Reitz, J. H.; Gillespie, W. H.
TITLE: The poisonous plants of West Virginia, A preliminary report.
YEAR: 1961 CITATION: Proc West Virginia Acad Sci, 33(), 29 [English]
FDA #: F06887
ABSTRACT: Some 45 species of native and introduced plants have been found in West Virginia that cause sickness or death to livestock which feed upon them. A few, including some forage plants, are poisonous only under certain conditions. Reliable statistics are not available to show the annual loss induced or influenced by poisonous plants within the state, but it is assumed that it varies from year to year. These plants occur in pastures and other grazing areas and sometimes have been cut and baled with hay. The lack of an authoritative diagnosis probably excludes several cases annually. Our observations suggest that faulty management of both the livestock and the pasture contribute to the incidence of poisoning since these plants are usually not palatable to animals. The plants found to be most frequent offenders are Prunus serotina Ehrh., Kalmia latifolia L., Delphinium tricorne Michx., Conium maculatum L., Cicuta maculata L., Sorghum sudanense (Piper) Stapf., Aesculus octandra L., Xanthium spp., Solanum nigrum L., Quercus spp., and Rhus radicans L., which often cause a severe dermatitis. Others which occasionally or rarely cause poisoning are Equisetum arvense L., Dactylis glomerata L., Sorghum halepense (L.) Per., Sorghum vulgare Pers., Arisaema triphyllum (L.) Schott., Veratrum viride Ait., Polygonum spp., Fagopyrum sagittatum Gilib., Rheum rhaponticum L., Phytolacca americana L., Agrostemma githago L., Podophyllum peltatum L., Sanguinaria canadensis L., Dicentra cucullaria (L.) Bernh., Brassica spp., Prunus virginiana L., Prunus pensylvanica L., Trifolium hybridum L., Melilotus spp., Robinia Pseudo-Acacia L., Acer rubrum L., Sida spinosa L., Pastinaca sativa L., Daucus carota L., Lyonia ligustrina (L.) D.C., Apocynum cannabinum L., Asclepias tuberosa L., Sambucus pubens Michx., Eupatorium rugosum L., Anthemis cotula L., and (?) Lobelia inflata L. Two cases of stock poisoning caused by the ingestion of Acer rubrum L. have been substantiated. Nine cows died in the first incident and a horse in the second. These are apparently the first reports of the killing of stock by the leaves of this plant. Mechanical injuries have been reported to be caused by parts of Verbascum thapsus L., Bidens spp., Cenchrus spp., Xanthium spp., and Platanus occidentalis L. Records of human poisoning are hard to substantiate, but one boy is known to have died at Culloden, West Virginia, in 1934 from eating the roots of Cicuta maculata L. A detailed manuscript covering this information was published by the West Virginia Department of Agriculture on September 15, 1961.
GRIN #: 3718 Exit Disclaimer
COMMON NAME
STANDARD COMMON NAME: Indian hemp
FAMILYApocynaceae
LATIN NAMEApocynum cannabinum L.
STANDARD PLANT NAMEApocynum cannabinum L.
GRIN #: 4018 Exit Disclaimer
COMMON NAME
STANDARD COMMON NAME: Jack-in-the-pulpit
FAMILYAraceae
LATIN NAMEArisaema triphyllum (L.) Schott.
STANDARD PLANT NAMEArisaema triphyllum (L.) Schott
GRIN #: 4480 Exit Disclaimer
COMMON NAME
STANDARD COMMON NAME: butterfly weed
FAMILYAsclepiadaceae
LATIN NAMEAsclepias tuberosa L.
STANDARD PLANT NAMEAsclepias tuberosa L.
FDA #: F06887
GRIN #: 1444G Exit Disclaimer
COMMON NAME
STANDARD COMMON NAME
FAMILYAsteraceae
LATIN NAMEBidens
STANDARD PLANT NAMEBidens sp.
FDA #: F06887
GRIN #: 1687G Exit Disclaimer
COMMON NAME
STANDARD COMMON NAME
FAMILYBrassicaceae
LATIN NAMEBrassica
STANDARD PLANT NAMEBrassica sp.
FDA #: F06887
GRIN #: 2228G Exit Disclaimer
COMMON NAME
STANDARD COMMON NAME
FAMILYPoaceae
LATIN NAMECenchrus
STANDARD PLANT NAMECenchrus sp.
GRIN #: 10545 Exit Disclaimer
COMMON NAME
STANDARD COMMON NAME
FAMILYApiaceae
LATIN NAMECicuta maculata L.
STANDARD PLANT NAMECicuta maculata L.
GRIN #: 11262 Exit Disclaimer
COMMON NAME
STANDARD COMMON NAME
FAMILYApiaceae
LATIN NAMEConium maculatum Li.
STANDARD PLANT NAMEConium maculatum L.
GRIN #: 13114 Exit Disclaimer
COMMON NAME
STANDARD COMMON NAME
FAMILYPoaceae
LATIN NAMEDactylis glomerata L.
STANDARD PLANT NAMEDactylis glomerata L.
GRIN #: 13337 Exit Disclaimer
COMMON NAME
STANDARD COMMON NAME: wild carrot
FAMILYApiaceae
LATIN NAMEDaucus carota L.
STANDARD PLANT NAMEDaucus carota L. subsp. carota
GRIN #: 408106 Exit Disclaimer
COMMON NAME
STANDARD COMMON NAME
FAMILYRanunculaceae
LATIN NAMEDelphinium tricorne Michx.
STANDARD PLANT NAMEDelphinium tricorne Michx.
GRIN #: 406116 Exit Disclaimer
COMMON NAME
STANDARD COMMON NAME
FAMILYFumariaceae
LATIN NAMEDicentra cucullaria (L.) Bernh.
STANDARD PLANT NAMEDicentra cucullaria (L.) Bernh.
GRIN #: 400386 Exit Disclaimer
COMMON NAME
STANDARD COMMON NAME: horsetail
FAMILYEquisetaceae
LATIN NAMEEquisetum arvense L.
STANDARD PLANT NAMEEquisetum arvense L.
GRIN #: 16528 Exit Disclaimer
COMMON NAME
STANDARD COMMON NAME: buckwheat
FAMILYPolygonaceae
LATIN NAMEFagopyrum sagittatum Gilib
STANDARD PLANT NAMEFagopyrum esculentum Moench
GRIN #: 21115 Exit Disclaimer
COMMON NAME
STANDARD COMMON NAME
FAMILYEricaceae
LATIN NAMEKalmia latifolia L.
STANDARD PLANT NAMEKalmia latifolia L.
GRIN #: 22466 Exit Disclaimer
COMMON NAME
STANDARD COMMON NAME: lobelia
FAMILYCampanulaceae
LATIN NAMELobelia inflata L.
STANDARD PLANT NAMELobelia inflata L.
GRIN #: 22993 Exit Disclaimer
COMMON NAME
STANDARD COMMON NAME
FAMILYEricaceae
LATIN NAMELyonia ligustrina (L.) DC.
STANDARD PLANT NAMELyonia ligustrina (L.) DC.
FDA #: F06887
GRIN #: 7430G Exit Disclaimer
COMMON NAME
STANDARD COMMON NAME
FAMILYFabaceae
LATIN NAMEMelilotus
STANDARD PLANT NAMEMelilotus sp.
GRIN #: 406685 Exit Disclaimer
COMMON NAME
STANDARD COMMON NAME
FAMILYApiaceae
LATIN NAMEPastinaca sativa L.
STANDARD PLANT NAMEPastinaca sativa L. subsp. sativa
GRIN #: 28252 Exit Disclaimer
COMMON NAME
STANDARD COMMON NAME: poke
FAMILYPhytolaccaceae
LATIN NAMEPhytolacca americana L.
STANDARD PLANT NAMEPhytolacca americana L.
GRIN #: 28802 Exit Disclaimer
COMMON NAME
STANDARD COMMON NAME
FAMILYPlatanaceae
LATIN NAMEPlatanus occidentalis L.
STANDARD PLANT NAMEPlatanus occidentalis L.
GRIN #: 29138 Exit Disclaimer
COMMON NAME
STANDARD COMMON NAME: mayapple
FAMILYBerberidaceae
LATIN NAMEPodophyllum peltatum L.
STANDARD PLANT NAMEPodophyllum peltatum L.
FDA #: F06887
GRIN #: 9711G Exit Disclaimer
COMMON NAME
STANDARD COMMON NAME
FAMILYPolygonaceae
LATIN NAMEPolygonum
STANDARD PLANT NAMEPolygonum sp.
GRIN #: 30064 Exit Disclaimer
COMMON NAME
STANDARD COMMON NAME
FAMILYRosaceae
LATIN NAMEPrunus pennsylvanica L.
STANDARD PLANT NAMEPrunus pensylvanica L. f.
GRIN #: 30099 Exit Disclaimer
COMMON NAME
STANDARD COMMON NAME: black cherry
FAMILYRosaceae
LATIN NAMEPrunus serotina Ehrh.
STANDARD PLANT NAMEPrunus serotina Ehrh.
GRIN #: 30151 Exit Disclaimer
COMMON NAME
STANDARD COMMON NAME: chokecherry
FAMILYRosaceae
LATIN NAMEPrunus virginia L.
STANDARD PLANT NAMEPrunus virginiana L.
FDA #: F06887
GRIN #: 10203G Exit Disclaimer
COMMON NAME
STANDARD COMMON NAME
FAMILYFagaceae
LATIN NAMEQuercus
STANDARD PLANT NAMEQuercus sp.
GRIN #: 31110 Exit Disclaimer
COMMON NAME
STANDARD COMMON NAME
FAMILYPolygonaceae
LATIN NAMERheum rhaponticum L.
STANDARD PLANT NAMERheum×hybridum Murray
GRIN #: 5238 Exit Disclaimer
COMMON NAME
STANDARD COMMON NAME: black locust
FAMILYFabaceae
LATIN NAMERobinia pseudo-acacia L.
STANDARD PLANT NAMERobinia pseudoacacia L.
GRIN #: 313645 Exit Disclaimer
COMMON NAME
STANDARD COMMON NAME
FAMILYCaprifoliaceae
LATIN NAMESambucus pubens Michx.
STANDARD PLANT NAMESambucus racemosa L. subsp. pubens (Michx.) House
GRIN #: 33014 Exit Disclaimer
COMMON NAME
STANDARD COMMON NAME: bloodroot
FAMILYPapaveraceae
LATIN NAMESanguinaria canadensis L.
STANDARD PLANT NAMESanguinaria canadensis L.
GRIN #: 33903 Exit Disclaimer
COMMON NAME
STANDARD COMMON NAME
FAMILYMalvaceae
LATIN NAMESida spinosa L.
STANDARD PLANT NAMESida spinosa L.
GRIN #: 310124 Exit Disclaimer
COMMON NAME
STANDARD COMMON NAME: black nightshade
FAMILYSolanaceae
LATIN NAMESolanum nigra L.
STANDARD PLANT NAMESolanum nigrum L.
GRIN #: 35113 Exit Disclaimer
COMMON NAME
STANDARD COMMON NAME
FAMILYPoaceae
LATIN NAMESorghum sudanese (Piper) Stapf.
STANDARD PLANT NAMESorghum ×drummondii (Steud.) Millsp. & Chase
GRIN #: 35092 Exit Disclaimer
COMMON NAME
STANDARD COMMON NAME
FAMILYPoaceae
LATIN NAMESorghum vulgare Pers.
STANDARD PLANT NAMESorghum bicolor (L.) Moench
GRIN #: 35119 Exit Disclaimer
COMMON NAME
STANDARD COMMON NAME
FAMILYPoaceae
LATIN NAMESorghum halepense (L.) Pers.
STANDARD PLANT NAMESorghum halepense (L.) Pers.
GRIN #: 101866 Exit Disclaimer
COMMON NAME
STANDARD COMMON NAME
FAMILYAnacardiaceae
LATIN NAMERhus radicans L.
STANDARD PLANT NAMEToxicodendron radicans (L.) Kuntze
GRIN #: 300618 Exit Disclaimer
COMMON NAME
STANDARD COMMON NAME
FAMILYFabaceae
LATIN NAMETrifolium hybridum L.
STANDARD PLANT NAMETrifolium hybridum L.
GRIN #: 41142 Exit Disclaimer
COMMON NAME
STANDARD COMMON NAME: American hellebore
FAMILYMelanthiaceae
LATIN NAMEVeratrum viride Ait.
STANDARD PLANT NAMEVeratrum viride Aiton
GRIN #: 41150 Exit Disclaimer
COMMON NAME
STANDARD COMMON NAME: mullein
FAMILYScrophulariaceae
LATIN NAMEVerbascum thapsus L.
STANDARD PLANT NAMEVerbascum thapsus L.
FDA #: F06887
GRIN #: 12931G Exit Disclaimer
COMMON NAME
STANDARD COMMON NAME
FAMILYAsteraceae
LATIN NAMEXanthium
STANDARD PLANT NAMEXanthium sp.
GRIN #: 1220 Exit Disclaimer
COMMON NAME
STANDARD COMMON NAME
FAMILYSapindaceae
LATIN NAMEAcer rubrum L.
STANDARD PLANT NAMEAcer rubrum L.
GRIN #: 316248 Exit Disclaimer
COMMON NAME
STANDARD COMMON NAME
FAMILYSapindaceae
LATIN NAMEAesculus octandra L.
STANDARD PLANT NAMEAesculus flava Sol.
GRIN #: 317713 Exit Disclaimer
COMMON NAME
STANDARD COMMON NAME
FAMILYAsteraceae
LATIN NAMEEupatorium rugosum L.
STANDARD PLANT NAMEAgeratina altissima (L.) R. M. King & H. Rob.
GRIN #: 1917 Exit Disclaimer
COMMON NAME
STANDARD COMMON NAME
FAMILYCaryophyllaceae
LATIN NAMEAgrostemma githago L.
STANDARD PLANT NAMEAgrostemma githago L.
GRIN #: 103883 Exit Disclaimer
COMMON NAME
STANDARD COMMON NAME: mayweed
FAMILYAsteraceae
LATIN NAMEAnthemis cotula L.
STANDARD PLANT NAMEAnthemis cotula L.
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