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J Leukoc Biol 2012 Jan;91(1):147-58

TLR9 and TLR7 agonists mediate distinct type I IFN responses in humans and nonhuman primates in vitro and in vivo.

Puig M, Tosh KW, Schramm LM, Grajkowska LT, Kirschman KD, Tami C, Beren J, Rabin RL, Verthelyi D


Human I-IFNs include IFN-ß and 13 independently regulated subtypes of IFN-¿ (I-IFNs). TLR7 and -9 induce I-IFNs, but it is unknown whether their subtype repertoire is similar. This study used new PCR arrays that selectively amplify individual I-IFN subtype genes of human and nonhuman primates to characterize the TLR7- and -9-mediated IFN response in vitro and in vivo. We show that in human PBMCs, TLR7 agonists induce a rapid burst of I-IFN transcripts, consisting primarily of IFN-¿1/13, -¿2, and -¿14. In contrast, TLR9 agonists, regardless of the type used (CpG C-, B-, or D-ODN), prompted slower but sustained expression of IFN-¿1/13, -¿2, -¿7, -¿8, -¿10, -¿14, -¿16, and -¿21. These qualitative differences were translated downstream as differences in the pattern of IFN-inducible genes. In macaque PBMCs, imiquimod produced a short burst of IFN mRNA, dominated by IFN-¿8, whereas C- or D-ODN induced a greater than tenfold increase in transcripts for all I-IFN subtypes by 12 h of culture. Differences were more evident in vivo, where TLR7 and -9 agonists induced significantly different levels of I-IFN transcripts in skin. Although the rates of gene transcription differed significantly for individual TLR9 agonists, their IFN-¿ subtype signature was almost identical, indicating that the type of receptor dictates the quality of the I-IFN response in vitro and in vivo. These results may underlie the differential therapeutic effects of TLR7 and -9 agonists and should inform future clinical studies.

Category: Journal Article
PubMed ID: #22058422 DOI: 10.1189/jlb.0711371
Includes FDA Authors from Scientific Area(s): Biologics, Drugs
Entry Created: 2011-10-04 Entry Last Modified: 2012-08-29