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U.S. Department of Health and Human Services

Scientific Publications by FDA Staff

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Food Microbiol 2013 May;34(1):182-8

Growth and survival of Salmonella in ground black pepper (Piper nigrum).

Keller SE, Vandoren JM, Grasso EM, Halik LA


A four serovar cocktail of Salmonella was inoculated into ground black pepper (Piper nigrum) at different water activity (aw) levels at a starting level of 4-5 log cfu/g and incubated at 25 and at 35 degrees C. At 35 degrees C and aw of 0.9886 +/- 0.0006, the generation time in ground black pepper was 31 +/- 3 min with a lag time of 4 +/- 1 h. Growth at 25 degrees C had a longer lag, but generation time was not statistically different from growth at 35 degrees C. The aw threshold for growth was determined to be 0.9793 +/- 0.0027 at 35 degrees C. To determine survival during storage conditions, ground black pepper was inoculated at approximately 8 log cfu/g and stored at 25 and 35 degrees C at high (97% RH) and ambient (

Category: Journal Article
PubMed ID: #23498196 DOI: 10.1016/j.fm.2012.12.002
Includes FDA Authors from Scientific Area(s): Food Women's Health
Entry Created: 2013-03-19 Entry Last Modified: 2013-08-31