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J Infect Dis 2014 Jun 15;209(12):1860-9

A Live Attenuated Influenza A(H5N1) Vaccine Induces Long-Term Immunity in the Absence of a Primary Antibody Response.

Talaat KR, Luke CJ, Khurana S, Manischewitz J, King LR, McMahon BA, Karron RA, Lewis KD, Qin J, Follmann DA, Golding H, Neuzil KM, Subbarao K


BACKGROUND: Highly pathogenic avian influenza A(H5N1) causes severe infections in humans. We generated 2 influenza A(H5N1) live attenuated influenza vaccines for pandemic use (pLAIVs), but they failed to elicit a primary immune response. Our objective was to determine whether the vaccines primed or established long-lasting immunity that could be detected by administration of inactivated subvirion influenza A(H5N1) vaccine (ISIV). METHODS: The following groups were invited to participate in the study: persons who previously received influenza A(H5N1) pLAIV; persons who previously received an irrelevant influenza A(H7N3) pLAIV; and community members who were naive to influenza A(H5N1) and LAIV. LAIV-experienced subjects received a single 45-µg dose of influenza A(H5N1) ISIV. Influenza A(H5N1)- and LAIV-naive subjects received either 1 or 2 doses of ISIV. RESULTS: In subjects who had previously received antigenically matched influenza A(H5N1) pLAIV followed by 1 dose of ISIV compared with those who were naive to influenza A(H5N1) and LAIV and received 2 doses of ISIV, we observed an increased frequency of antibody response (82% vs 50%, by the hemagglutination inhibition assay) and a significantly higher antibody titer (112 vs 76; P = .04). The affinity of antibody and breadth of cross-clade neutralization was also enhanced in influenza A(H5N1) pLAIV-primed subjects. CONCLUSIONS: ISIV administration unmasked long-lasting immunity in influenza A(H5N1) pLAIV recipients, with a rapid, high-titer, high-quality antibody response that was broadly cross-reactive across several influenza A(H5N1) clades. Clinical Trials Registration. NCT01109329.

Category: Journal Article
PubMed ID: #24604819 DOI: 10.1093/infdis/jiu123
Includes FDA Authors from Scientific Area(s): Biologics
Entry Created: 2013-06-12 Entry Last Modified: 2014-07-07