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J Infect Dis 2016 Apr 1;213(7):1115-23

Measles virus neutralizing antibody response, cell-mediated immunity, and IgG antibody avidity before and after a third dose of measles-mumps-rubella vaccine in young adults.

Fiebelkorn AP, Coleman LA, Belongia EA, Freeman SK, York D, Bi D, Kulkarni A, Audet S, Mercader S, McGrew M, Hickman CJ, Bellini WJ, Shivakoti R, Griffin DE, Beeler J


BACKGROUND: Two doses of measles-mumps-rubella (MMR) vaccine are 97% effective against measles, but waning antibody immunity and two-dose vaccine failures occur. We administered a third MMR dose (MMR3) to young adults and assessed immunogenicity over 1 year. METHODS: Measles virus (MeV) neutralizing antibody concentrations, cell-mediated immunity (CMI), and IgG antibody avidity were assessed at baseline, 1-month, and 1-year after MMR3. RESULTS: Of 662 subjects at baseline, 1 (0.2%) was seronegative (<8 mIU/mL) and 23 (3.5%) had low (8-120 mIU/mL) MeV neutralizing antibodies. At 1-month post-MMR3, 1 (0.2%) subject was seronegative and 6 (0.9%) had low neutralizing antibodies with only 21/662 (3.2%) showing a =4-fold rise in neutralizing antibodies. At 1-year post-MMR3, none were negative and 10 (1.6%) of 617 subjects had low neutralizing antibodies. CMI results showed low-levels of spot-forming cells after stimulation, suggesting T-cell memory, but the response was minimal post-MMR3. MeV IgG avidity results did not correlate with neutralization results. CONCLUSIONS: Most subjects were seropositive pre-MMR3 and very few had a secondary immune response post-MMR3. Similarly, CMI and avidity results showed minimal qualitative improvements in immune response post-MMR3. We did not find compelling data to support a routine third dose of MMR vaccine.

Category: Journal Article
PubMed ID: #26597262 DOI: 10.1093/infdis/jiv555
Includes FDA Authors from Scientific Area(s): Biologics
Entry Created: 2016-02-19 Entry Last Modified: 2019-06-09