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PLoS One 2016 Feb 10;11(2):e0144261

Fluorescence adherence inhibition assay: a novel functional assessment of blocking virus attachment by vaccine-induced antibodies.

Asati A, Kachurina O, Karol A, Dhir V, Nguyen M, Parkhill R, Kouiavskaia D, Chumakov K, Warren W, Kachurin A

Abstract

Neutralizing antibodies induced by vaccination or natural infection play a critically important role in protection against the viral diseases. In general, neutralization of the viral infection occurs via two major pathways: pre- and post-attachment modes, the first being the most important for such infections as influenza and polio, the latter being significant for filoviruses. Neutralizing capacity of antibodies is typically evaluated by virus neutralization assays that assess reduction of viral infectivity to the target cells in the presence of functional antibodies. Plaque reduction neutralization test, microneutralization and immunofluorescent assays are often used as gold standard virus neutralization assays. However, these methods are associated with several important prerequisites such as use of live virus requiring safety precautions, tedious evaluation procedure and long assessment time. Hence, there is a need for a robust, inexpensive high throughput functional assay that can be performed rapidly using inactivated virus, without extensive safety precautions. Herein, we report a novel high throughput Fluorescence Adherence Inhibition assay (fADI) using inactivated virus labeled with fluorescent secondary antibodies virus and Vero cells or erythrocytes as targets. It requires only few hours to assess pre-attachment neutralizing capacity of donor sera. fADI assay was tested successfully on donors immunized with polio, yellow fever and influenza vaccines. To further simplify and improve the throughput of the assay, we have developed a mathematical approach for calculating the 50% titers from a single sample dilution, without the need to analyze multi-point titration curves. Assessment of pre- and post-vaccination human sera from subjects immunized with IPOL(R), YF-VAX(R) and 2013-2014 Fluzone(R) vaccines demonstrated high efficiency of the assay. The results correlated very well with microneutralization assay performed independently by the FDA Center of Biologics Evaluation and Research, with plaque reduction neutralization test performed by Focus Diagnostics, and with hemaglutination inhibition assay performed in-house at Sanofi Pasteur. Taken together, fADI assay appears to be a useful high throughput functional immunoassay for assessment of antibody-related neutralization of the viral infections for which pre-attachment neutralization pathway is predominant, such as polio, influenza, yellow fever and dengue.


Category: Journal Article
PubMed ID: #26863313 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0144261
PubMed Central ID: #PMC4749260
Includes FDA Authors from Scientific Area(s): Biologics
Entry Created: 2016-02-19 Entry Last Modified: 2016-04-02
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