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Cell Host Microbe 2018 Jan 10;23(1):134-43

Gut microbes egested during bites of infected sand flies augment severity of leishmaniasis via inflammasome-derived IL-1beta.

Dey R, Joshi AB, Oliveira F, Pereira L, Guimarães-Costa AB, Serafim TD, de Castro W, Coutinho-Abreu IV, Bhattacharya P, Townsend S, Aslan H, Perkins A, Karmakar S, Ismail N, Karetnick M, Meneses C, Duncan R, Nakhasi HL, Valenzuela JG, Kamhawi S


Leishmania donovani parasites are the cause of visceral leishmaniasis and are transmitted by bites from phlebotomine sand flies. A prominent feature of vector-transmitted Leishmania is the persistence of neutrophils at bite sites, where they protect captured parasites, leading to enhanced disease. Here, we demonstrate that gut microbes from the sand fly are egested into host skin alongside Leishmania parasites. The egested microbes trigger the inflammasome, leading to a rapid production of interleukin-1ß (IL-1ß), which sustains neutrophil infiltration. Reducing midgut microbiota by pretreatment of Leishmania-infected sand flies with antibiotics or neutralizing the effect of IL-1ß in bitten mice abrogates neutrophil recruitment. These early events are associated with impairment of parasite visceralization, indicating that both gut microbiota and IL-1ß are important for the establishment of Leishmania infections. Considering that arthropods harbor a rich microbiota, its potential egestion after bites may be a shared mechanism that contributes to severity of vector-borne disease.

Category: Journal Article
PubMed ID: #29290574 DOI: 10.1016/j.chom.2017.12.002
PubMed Central ID: #PMC5832060
Includes FDA Authors from Scientific Area(s): Biologics
Entry Created: 2017-01-18 Entry Last Modified: 2019-06-09