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PLoS One 2020 Jan 30;15(1):e0228006

A novel gamma radiation-inactivated sabin-based polio vaccine.

Tobin GJ, Tobin JK, Gaidamakova EK, Wiggins TJ, Bushnell RV, Lee WM, Matrosova VY, Dollery SJ, Meeks HN, Kouiavskaia D, Chumakov K, Daly MJ


A concerted action on the part of international agencies and national governments has resulted in the near-eradication of poliomyelitis. However, both the oral polio vaccine (OPV) and the inactivated polio vaccine (IPV) have deficiencies which make them suboptimal for use after global eradication. OPV is composed of attenuated Sabin strains and stimulates robust immunity, but may revert to neurovirulent forms in the intestine which can be shed and infect susceptible contacts. The majority of IPV products are manufactured using pathogenic strains inactivated with formalin. Upon eradication, the production of large quantities of pathogenic virus will present an increased biosecurity hazard. A logical ideal endgame vaccine would be an inactivated form of an attenuated strain that could afford protective immunity while safely producing larger numbers of doses per unit of virus stock than current vaccines. We report here the development of an ionizing radiation (IR)-inactivated Sabin-based vaccine using a reconstituted Mn-decapeptide (MDP) antioxidant complex derived from the radioresistant bacterium Deinococcus radiodurans. In bacteria, Mn2+-peptide antioxidants protect proteins from oxidative damage caused by extreme radiation exposure. Here we show for the first time, that MDP can protect immunogenic neutralizing epitopes in picornaviruses. MDP protects epitopes in Polio Virus 1 and 2 Sabin strains (PV1-S and PV2-S, respectively), but viral genomic RNA is not protected during supralethal irradiation. IR-inactivated Sabin viruses stimulated equivalent or improved neutralizing antibody responses in Wistar rats compared to the commercially used IPV products. Our approach reduces the biosecurity risk of the current PV vaccine production method by utilizing the Sabin strains instead of the wild type neurovirulent strains. Additionally, the IR-inactivation approach could provide a simpler, faster and less costly process for producing a more immunogenic IPV. Gamma-irradiation is a well-known method of virus inactivation and this vaccine approach could be adapted to any pathogen of interest.

Category: Journal Article
PubMed ID: #31999745 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0228006
PubMed Central ID: #PMC6991977
Includes FDA Authors from Scientific Area(s): Biologics
Entry Created: 2020-02-02 Entry Last Modified: 2020-06-07