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Clin Pharmacol Ther 2020 Jul 20 [Epub ahead of print]

Pharmacokinetics and pharmacological properties of chloroquine and hydroxychloroquine in the context of COVID-19 infection.

Nicol MR, Joshi A, Rizk ML, Sabato PE, Savic RM, Wesche D, Zheng JH, Cook J


Chloroquine and hydroxychloroquine are quinoline derivatives used to treat malaria. To date, these medications are not approved for the treatment of viral infections and there are no well-controlled, prospective, randomized clinical studies or evidence to support their use in patients with Coronavirus Infectious Disease-2019 (COVID-19). Nevertheless, chloroquine and hydroxychloroquine are being studied alone or in combination with other agents to assess their effectiveness in the treatment or prophylaxis for COVID-19. The effective use of any medication involves an understanding of its pharmacokinetics (PK), safety and mechanism of action. This work provides basic clinical pharmacology information relevant for planning and initiating COVID-19 clinical studies with chloroquine or hydroxychloroquine, summarizes safety data from healthy volunteer studies, and summarizes safety data from Phase 2 and Phase 2/3 clinical studies in patients with uncomplicated malaria, including a Phase 2/3 study in pediatric patients following administration of azithromycin and chloroquine in combination. In addition, this work presents data describing the proposed mechanisms of action against the severe acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) and summarizes clinical efficacy to date.

Category: Journal Article, Review
PubMed ID: #32687630 DOI: 10.1002/cpt.1993
Includes FDA Authors from Scientific Area(s): Drugs
Entry Created: 2020-07-26