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Birth Defects Res A Clin Mol Teratol 2004 Jul;70(7):431-7

Rubella Virus and Birth Defects: Molecular Insights into the Viral Teratogenesis at the Cellular Level

Atreya CD, Mohan KV, Kulkarni S.

Atreya CD, US FDA, Ctr Biol Evaluat & Res, Sect Viral Pathogenesis & Vaccine & Res, Div Viral Prod, Bldg 29A,Room 2C-11,HFM-460,8800 Rockville Pike, Bethesda, MD 20892 USA US FDA, Ctr Biol Evaluat & Res, Sect Viral Pathogenesis & Vaccine & Res, Div Viral Prod, Bethesda, MD 20892 USA


BACKGROUND: In utero rubella virus (RV) infection of a fetus can result in birth defects that are often collectively referred to as congenital rubella syndrome (CRS). In extreme cases, fetal death can occur. In spite of the availability of a safe and effective vaccine against rubella, recent worldwide estimates are that more than 100,000 infants are born with CRS annually. RECENT PROGRESS: Recently, several significant findings in the field of cell biology, as well as in the RV replication and virus-cell interactions, have originated from the authors' laboratory, and other researchers have provided insights into RV teratogenesis. It has been shown that 1) an RV protein induces cell-cycle arrest by generating a subpopulation of tetraploid nuclei (i.e., 4N DNA) cells, perhaps representative of the tetraploid state following S phase in the cell cycle, due to its interaction with citron-K kinase (CK); 2) RV infection induces apoptosis in cell culture, and 3) CK functional perturbations lead to tetraploidy, followed by apoptosis, in specific cell types. CONCLUSIONS: Based on several similarities between known RV-associated fetal and cellular manifestations and CK deficiency-associated phenotypes, it is reasonable to postulate that P90-CK interaction in RV-infected cells interferes with CK function and induces cell-cycle arrest following S phase in a subpopulation, perhaps representative of tetraploid stage, which could lead to subsequent apoptosis in RV infection. Taking all these observations to the fetal organogenesis level, it is plausible that P90-CK interaction could perhaps be one of the initial steps in RV infection-induced apoptosis-associated fetal birth defects in utero.

Category: Journal Article, Review, Peer
PubMed ID: #15259032
Includes FDA Authors from Scientific Area(s): Biologics
Entry Created: 2011-10-04 Entry Last Modified: 2014-08-24