(a) Description. Yogurt is the food produced by culturing one or more of the optional dairy ingredients specified in paragraph (c) of this section with a characterizing bacterial culture that contains the lactic acid-producing bacteria, Lactobacillus bulgaricus and Streptococcus thermophilus. One or more of the other optional ingredients specified in paragraphs (b) and (d) of this section may also be added. When one or more of the ingredients specified in paragraph (d)(1) of this section are used, they shall be included in the culturing process. All ingredients used are safe and suitable. Yogurt, before the addition of bulky flavors, contains not less than 3.25 percent milkfat and not less than 8.25 percent milk solids not fat, and has a titratable acidity of not less than 0.9 percent, expressed as lactic acid. The food may be homogenized and shall be pasteurized or ultra-pasteurized prior to the addition of the bacterial culture. Flavoring ingredients may be added after pasteurization or ultra-pasteurization. To extend the shelf life of the food, yogurt may be heat treated after culturing is completed, to destroy viable microorganisms.
(b) Vitamin addition (optional). (1) If added, vitamin A shall be present in such quantity that each 946 milliliters (quart) of the food contains not less than 2,000 International Units thereof, within limits of current good manufacturing practice.
(2) If added, vitamin D shall be present in such quantity that each 946 milliliters (quart) of the food contains 400 International Units thereof, within limits of current good manufacturing practice.
(c) Optional dairy ingredients. Cream, milk, partially skimmed milk, or skim milk, used alone or in combination.
(d) Other optional ingredients. (1) Concentrated skim milk, nonfat dry milk, buttermilk, whey, lactose, lactalbumins, lactoglobulins, or whey modified by partial or complete removal of lactose and/or minerals, to increase the nonfat solids content of the food: Provided, That the ratio of protein to total nonfat solids of the food, and the protein efficiency ratio of all protein present shall not be decreased as a result of adding such ingredients.
(2) Nutritive carbohydrate sweeteners. Sugar (sucrose), beet or cane; invert sugar (in paste or sirup form); brown sugar; refiner's sirup; molasses (other than blackstrap); high fructose corn sirup; fructose; fructose sirup; maltose; maltose sirup, dried maltose sirup; malt extract, dried malt extract; malt sirup, dried malt sirup; honey; maple sugar; or any of the sweeteners listed in part 168 of this chapter, except table sirup.
(3) Flavoring ingredients.
(4) Color additives.
(e) Methods of analysis. The following referenced methods of analysis are from "Official Methods of Analysis of the Association of Official Analytical Chemists," 13th Ed. (1980), which is incorporated by reference. Copies are available from the AOAC INTERNATIONAL, 481 North Frederick Ave., suite 500, Gaithersburg, MD 20877, or available for inspection at the National Archives and Records Administration (NARA). For information on the availability of this material at NARA, call 202-741-6030, or go to: http://www.archives.gov/federal_register/code_of_federal_regulations/ibr_locations.html.
(1) Milkfat content--As determined by the method prescribed in section 16.059 "Roese-Gottlieb Method (Reference Method) (11)--Official Final Action," under the heading "Fat."
(2) Milk solids not fat content--Calculated by subtracting the milkfat content from the total solids content as determined by the method prescribed in section 16.032, "Method I--Official Final Action," under the heading "Total Solids."
(3) Titratable acidity--As determined by the method prescribed in section 16.023, "Acidity (2)--Official Final Action," or by an equivalent potentiometric method.
(f) Nomenclature. The name of the food is "yogurt". The name of the food shall be accompanied by a declaration indicating the presence of any characterizing flavoring as specified in 101.22 of this chapter.
(1) The following terms shall accompany the name of the food wherever it appears on the principal display panel or panels of the label in letters not less than one-half of the height of the letters used in such name:
(i) The word "sweetened" if nutritive carbohydrate sweetener is added without the addition of characterizing flavor.
(ii) The parenthetical phrase "(heat-treated after culturing)" shall follow the name of the food if the dairy ingredients have been heat-treated after culturing.
(iii) The phrase "vitamin A" or "vitamin A added", or "vitamin D" or "vitamin D added", or "vitamins A and D added", as appropriate. The word "vitamin" may be abbreviated "vit".
(2) The term "homogenized" may appear on the label if the dairy ingredients used are homogenized.
(g) Label declaration. Each of the ingredients used in the food shall be declared on the label as required by the applicable sections of parts 101 and 130 of this chapter.