(a) Lactic acid (C3H6O3, CAS Reg. Nos.: dl mixture, 598-82-3; l-isomer, 79-33-4; d-isomer, 10326-41-7), the chemical 2-hydroxypropanoic acid, occurs naturally in several foods. It is produced commercially either by fermentation of carbohydrates such as glucose, sucrose, or lactose, or by a procedure involving formation of lactonitrile from acetaldehyde and hydrogen cyanide and subsequent hydrolysis to lactic acid.
(b) The ingredient meets the specifications of the Food Chemicals Codex, 3d Ed. (1981), p. 159, which is incorporated by reference. Copies are available from the National Academy Press, 2101 Constitution Avenue, NW., Washington, DC 20418, or available for inspection at the National Archives and Records Administration (NARA). For information on the availability of this material at NARA, call 202-741-6030, or go to: http://www.archives.gov/federal_register/code_of_federal_regulations/ibr_locations.html.
(c) In accordance with 184.1(b)(1), the ingredient is used in food with no limitation other than current good manufacturing practice. The affirmation of this ingredient as generally recognized as safe (GRAS) as a direct human food ingredient is based upon the following current good manufacturing practice conditions of use:
(1) The ingredient is used as an antimicrobial agent as defined in 170.3(o)(2) of this chapter; a curing and pickling agent as defined in 170.3(o)(5) of this chapter; a flavor enhancer as defined in 170.3(o)(11) of this chapter; a flavoring agent and adjuvant as defined in 170.3(o)(12) of this chapter; a pH control agent as defined in 170.3(o)(23) of this chapter; and a solvent and vehicle as defined in 170.3(o)(27) of this chapter.
(2) The ingredient is used in food, except in infant foods and infant formulas, at levels not to exceed current good manufacturing practice.
(d) Prior sanctions for this ingredient different from the uses established in this section do not exist or have been waived.