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U.S. Department of Health and Human Services

CFR - Code of Federal Regulations Title 21

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The information on this page is current as of April 1 2019.

For the most up-to-date version of CFR Title 21, go to the Electronic Code of Federal Regulations (eCFR).

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Help | More About 21CFR
[Code of Federal Regulations]
[Title 21, Volume 2]
[Revised as of April 1, 2019]
[CITE: 21CFR145.180]



TITLE 21--FOOD AND DRUGS
CHAPTER I--FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION
DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES
SUBCHAPTER B--FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION

PART 145 -- CANNED FRUITS

Subpart B--Requirements for Specific Standardized Canned Fruits

Sec. 145.180 Canned pineapple.

(a) Identity --(1) Ingredients. Canned pineapple is the food prepared from mature, fresh or previously canned, pineapple conforming to the characteristics of Ananas comosus (L.) Merrill and from which peel and core have been removed. The food consists of one of the optional styles of the pineapple ingredient specified in paragraph (a)(2) of this section and may be packed in one of the optional packing media specified in paragraph (a)(3) of this section, except water is not a suitable packing medium for crushed style. Crushed style additionally may be packed as heavy or solid pack as specified in paragraph (a)(4) of this section. The food may also contain one, or any combination of two or more, of the following safe and suitable optional ingredients:

(i) Natural fruit flavors.

(ii) Mint flavor.

(iii) Spices, spice oils.

(iv) Vinegar or organic acids.

(v) Dimethylpolysiloxane in an amount not greater than 10 milligrams/kilogram (10 parts per million) by weight of the finished food as a defoaming agent.

The food is sealed in a container and, before or after sealing, is so processed by heat as to prevent spoilage.

(2) Styles of pack. The optional styles of the pineapple ingredients referred to in paragraph (a)(1) of this section are:

(i) Slices or whole slices or rings --consisting of uniformly cut circular slices or rings cut across the axis of the peeled, cored pineapple cylinders.

(ii) Half slices --consisting of uniformly cut, approximately semicircular halves of slices.

(iii) Quarter slices --consisting of uniformly cut, one-fourth portions of slices.

(iv) Broken slices --consisting of arc-shaped portions which may not be uniform in size and/or shape.

(v) Spears or fingers --consisting of long, slender pieces cut radially and lengthwise of the cored pineapple cylinder, predominantly 65 millimeters (2.5 inches) or longer.

(vi) Tidbits --consisting of reasonably uniform, wedge-shaped sectors cut from slices or portions thereof, predominantly from 8 millimeters (0.31 inch) to 13 millimeters (0.51 inch) thick.

(vii) Chunks --consisting of short, thick pieces cut from thick slices and/or from peeled cored pineapple and predominantly more than 13 millimeters (0.51 inch) in both thickness and width, and less than 38 millimeters (1.5 inches) in length and does not include large cubes.

(viii) Small cubes or dice --consisting of reasonably uniform, cube-shaped pieces, predominately 14 millimeters (0.55 inch) or less in the longest edge dimensions.

(ix) Pieces or irregular pieces --consisting of irregular shapes and sizes not identifiable as a specific style and does not include chunks.

(x) Crushed --consisting of finely cut or finely shredded or grated or diced pieces of pineapple.

(xi) Large cubes --consisting of reasonably uniform, cube-shaped pieces, longer than 14 millimeters (0.55 inch) along any edge, but predominately 25 millimeters (1 inch) or less in the longest edge dimensions.

(3) Packing media. (i) The optional packing media referred to in paragraph (a)(1) of this section and defined in 145.3 are:

(a ) Water.

(b ) Pineapple juice and water.

(c ) Pineapple juice.

(d ) Clarified pineapple juice.

Such packing media may be used as such, or any one of the optional sweetening ingredients specified in paragraph (a)(3)(ii) of this section may be added.

(ii) The optional sweetening ingredients referred to in paragraph (a)(3)(i) of this section are:

(a ) Sugar.

(b ) Invert sugar sirup.

(c ) Any mixture of optional sweetening ingredients designated in paragraph (a)(3)(ii)(a ) and (b ) of this section.

(d ) Any of the optional sweetening ingredients designated in paragraph (a)(3)(ii)(a ), (b ), and (c ) of this section with dextrose, as long as the weight of the solids of dextrose does not exceed one-third of the total weight of the solids of the combined sweetening ingredients.

(e ) Any of the optional sweetening ingredients designated in paragraph (a)(3)(ii)(a ), (b ), and (c ) of this section with corn sirup or with dried corn sirup or with glucose sirup or with dried glucose sirup, or with any two or more of these, as long as the weight of the solids of corn sirup, dried corn sirup, glucose sirup, dried glucose sirup, or the sum of the weights of the solids of corn sirup, dried corn sirup, glucose sirup, and dried glucose sirup, in case two or more of these are used, does not exceed one-fourth of the total weight of the solids of the combined sweetening ingredients.

(f ) Any mixture of the optional ingredients designated in paragraph (a)(3)(ii)(d ) and (e ) of this section.

(iii) If the concentration of clarified pineapple juice is such that the packing medium conforms to the density range for one of the sirups provided for in paragraph (a)(3)(iv)(b ), (c ), or (d ) of this section, the concentrated clarified juice is considered to be light sirup, heavy sirup, or extra heavy sirup, as the case may be.

(iv) When a sweetener is added as a part of any liquid packing medium as provided for in paragraph (a)(3)(i)(a ), (b ), and (c ) of this section, the density range of the resulting packing medium, expressed as percent by weight of sucrose (degrees Brix) as determined by the procedure in 145.3(m), shall be designated by the appropriate name for the respective density ranges, namely:

(a ) When the density of the solution is 10 percent or more but less than 14 percent, the medium shall be designated as "slightly sweetened water" or "extra light sirup"; "slightly sweetened pineapple juice and water"; or "slightly sweetened pineapple juice", as the case may be.

(b ) When the density of the solution is 14 percent or more but less than 18 percent, the medium shall be designated as "light sirup"; "lightly sweetened pineapple juice and water"; or "lightly sweetened pineapple juice," as the case may be.

(c ) When the density of the solution is 18 percent or more but less than 22 percent, the medium shall be designated as "heavy sirup"; "heavily sweetened pineapple juice and water"; or "heavily sweetened pineapple juice", as the case may be.

(d ) When the density of the solution is 22 percent or more but not more than 35 percent, the medium shall be designated as "extra heavy sirup"; "extra heavily sweetened pineapple juice and water"; or "extra heavily sweetened pineapple juice", as the case may be.

(v) Determine compliance as specified in 145.3(o).

(4) Types of pack. The optional types of pack for crushed style referred to in paragraph (a)(1) of this section are as follows:

(i) Heavy pack. Crushed style with or without sweetening ingredients and containing at least 73 percent drained fruit weight, as determined by the procedure set forth in 145.3(n).

(ii) Solid pack. Crushed style with or without sweetening ingredients and containing at least 78 percent drained fruit weight, as determined by the procedure set forth in 145.3(n).

(5) Labeling requirements. (i) The name of the food is "pineapple". The name of the food shall also include a declaration of any flavoring that characterizes the product as specified in 101.22 of this chapter and a declaration of any spice or seasoning that characterizes the product; for example, "Spice added", or, in lieu of the word "Spice", the common name of the spice; or "Seasoned with vinegar" or, in lieu of the word "vinegar", the name of the vinegar used. When two or more of the optional ingredients specified in paragraph (a)(1)(i) through (iv) of this section are used, such words may be combined, as, for example, "Seasoned with cider vinegar, cloves, and cinnamon oil".

(ii) The style of the pineapple ingredient as provided for in paragraph (a)(2) of this section and the name of the packing medium as specified in paragraph (a)(3)(i) and (ii) of this section, preceded by "In" or "Packed in" or the words "Heavy pack" or "Solid pack" as specified in paragraph (a)(4) of this section, where applicable, shall be included as part of the name or in close proximity to the name of the food. The word "slices" may be alternatively designated "sliced," "dice" as "diced," and "pieces" or "irregular pieces" as "mixed pieces of irregular sizes and shapes." Whenever pineapple juice, as provided for in paragraph (a)(3)(i)(c ) of this section, is used, the declaration may be preceded by an appropriate statement such as "unsweetened".

(iii) Label declaration. Each of the ingredients used in the food shall be declared on the label as required by the applicable sections of parts 101 and 130 of this chapter.

(b) Quality. (1) The standard of quality for canned pineapple is as follows:

(i) Core material. In the case of all styles, not more than 7 percent of the drained weight of the contents of the container consists of core material as determined by the method prescribed in paragraph (b)(3)(ii) of this section.

(ii) Uniformity of weight and shape --(a ) Slices. The drained weight of the largest unit in the container is not more than 1.4 times the drained weight of the smallest unit.

(b ) Half slices and quarter slices. The drained weight of the largest unit in a container is not more than 1.75 times the drained weight of the smallest unit, except for an occasional broken piece due to splitting or an occasional whole slice not completely cut through.

(c ) Broken slices. (1 ) Not more than 10 percent of the drained weight of the contents of the container consists of pieces having an arc of less than 90deg. .

(2 ) Not more than 5 percent of the drained weight of the contents of the container:

(i ) Consists of pieces that measure in thickness less than 8 millimeters (0.31 inch) or more than 25 millimeters (1 inch); or

(ii ) Consists of pieces that measure less than 19 millimeters (0.75 inch) in width as measured from the outer edge to the inner edge.

(3 ) Not more than 5 percent of the drained weight of the contents of the container consists of broken slices having an outside diameter differing by as much as 9.5 millimeters (0.37 inch) from that of those present in greatest proportion by weight.

(d ) Spears. The drained weight of the largest unit in the container is not more than 1.4 times the drained weight of the smallest unit.

(e ) Tidbits. Not more than 15 percent of the drained weight of the contents of the container consists of units each of which weighs less than three-fourths as much as the average drained weight of all the untrimmed units in the container.

(f ) Chunks. Not more than 15 percent of the drained weight of the contents of the container consists of pieces weighing less than 5 grams (0.18 ounce) each.

(g ) Cubes. (1 ) Not more than 10 percent of the drained weight of the contents of the container consists of pieces that will pass through a screen with square openings of 8 millimeters (0.31 inch) in the case of the small cubes or large cubes.

(2 ) Not more than 15 percent of the drained weight consists of pieces weighing more than 3 grams (0.11 ounce) each for small cubes and 18 grams (0.63 ounce) each for large cubes.

(h ) Pieces. Not more than 20 percent of the drained weight of the contents of the container consists of units that will pass through a screen with square openings of 8 millimeters (0.31 inch).

(iii) Blemishes. Blemishes consist of surface areas and spots that contrast strongly in color or texture with the normal pineapple tissue or that may penetrate the flesh. Blemishes are normally removed in preparation of pineapple for culinary use and include any of the following, if in excess of 1.6 millimeters (0.06 inch) in the longest dimension on the exposed surface of the unit: deep fruit eyes, pieces of shell, brown spots, bruised portions, and other abnormalities.

(a ) Slices, half slices, quarter slices, broken slices, spears, tidbits, chunks, cubes, and pieces. Not more than 12.5 percent by count of the units in the container may be blemished; but in containers having not more than 5 units, 1 unit may be blemished; in containers having more than 5 units, but not more than 10 units, 2 units may be blemished and in containers having more than 10 units, but not more than 32 units, 4 units may be blemished.

(b ) Crushed. Not more than 1.5 percent of the drained weight of the contents of the container consists of fragments bearing blemishes.

(iv) Excessively trimmed. Slices, half slices, and quarter slices are considered excessively trimmed if the portion trimmed away exceeds 5 percent of the apparent physical bulk of the perfectly formed unit and if the trimming destroys the normal circular shape of the outer or inner edge of the unit. Broken slices, spears, and tidbits are excessively trimmed if the trimming destroys the normal shape of the unit.

(a ) Slices, half slices, and quarter slices. Not more than 7.5 percent by count of the units in the container may be excessively trimmed, but in containers having not more than 10 units, 1 unit may be excessively trimmed; and in containers having more than 10 units, but not more than 27 units, 2 units may be excessively trimmed.

(b ) Broken slices and spears. Not more than 15 percent by count of the total units in the container may be excessively trimmed.

(c ) Tidbits. Not more than 15 percent of the drained weight of the contents of the container consists of excessively trimmed units.

(v) Mashed. A unit that has lost its normal shape because of ripeness that bears no mark of mechanical injury is not to be considered mashed.

(a ) Slices, half slices, and quarter slices. Not more than one unit in containers of 25 units or less, and not more than 3 units in containers of more than 25 units, are mashed.

(b ) Broken slices. Not more than 5 percent by count of the units in the container are mashed.

(c ) Spears. Not more than 1 unit in the container is mashed.

(d ) Tidbits. Not more than 3 units in containers of less than 150 units, and not more than 2 percent of the units in containers of 150 units or more, are mashed.

(e ) Chunks. Not more than 3 units in containers of less than 70 units, and not more than 5 percent of the units in containers of 70 units or more, are mashed.

(vi) Acidity. In the case of all styles, not more than 1.35 grams of acid, calculated as anhydrous citric acid, is contained in 100 milliliters of the liquid drained from the product 15 days or more after the pineapple is canned.

(vii) Excessive liquid. The drained weight of crushed pineapple is not less than 63 percent of the net weight of the contents of the container.

(2) Sampling and acceptance. Determine compliance as specified in 145.3(o).

(3) Methodology. The method to be employed to determine whether canned pineapple meets the requirements of paragraph (b)(1) (i) through (vi) of this section are as follows:

(i) Determine the drained weight of the canned pineapple by the procedure prescribed in 145.3(n).

(ii) Identify and separate any core material cleanly from each of the units in the container, and weigh the aggregate of the core material. Calculate the percent core material to determine compliance with paragraph (b)(1)(i) of this section.

(iii) In the case of slices, half slices, quarter slices, spears, tidbits, chunks, and pieces, check the weight of the units against the requirements of paragraph (b)(1)(ii) (a ), (b ), (d ), (e ), (f ), and (h ) of this section.

(iv) In the case of broken slices, check the dimensions of each unit against the requirements of paragraph (b)(1)(ii)(c ) of this section.

(v) In the case of cubes, and pieces, determine compliance with paragraph (b)(1)(ii) (g ) and (h ) of this section by placing the units, a few at a time, on the mesh of a U.S. Standard No. 8 sieve (8-millimeter (0.31 inch)) mesh. After shaking gently, remove those units that remain on the sieve before testing the next portion. Continue portion-wise until all units are tested, then determine the aggregate weight of those units that have passed through the sieve.

(vi) Except in the case of crushed pineapple, segregate and count each unit that is blemished as defined in paragraph (b)(1)(iii) of this section. In the case of crushed pineapple, segregate each fragment of crushed pineapple bearing a blemish and determine the aggregate weight of such fragments to determine compliance with paragraph (b)(1)(iii)(b ) of this section.

(vii) Except in the case of chunks, cubes, pieces, and crushed pineapple, inspect all the units in the container to determine those that have been excessively trimmed, as defined in paragraph (b)(1)(iv) of this section.

(viii) Except in the case of cubes, pieces, and crushed pineapple, count the total units in the container and the number of mashed units to determine compliance with paragraph (b)(1)(v) of this section.

(ix) Determine the total acidity of the drained liquid by titration, using the following method: Measure with a pipette 10 milliliters of the unfiltered drained liquid into a 250-milliliter Erlenmeyer flask. Add 25 milliliters of distilled or deionized water and 0.3 milliliter of 1-percent phenolphthalein solution. Titrate with one-tenth normal sodium hydroxide solution to a faint, permanently pink coloration. Multiply the number of milliliters of one-tenth normal sodium hydroxide required by 0.064 to calculate the number of grams of anhydrous citric acid per 100 milliliters of drained liquid to determine compliance with paragraph (b)(3)(vi) of this section.

(4) If the quality of canned pineapple falls below the standard prescribed in paragraph (b)(1) of this section, the label shall bear the general statement of substandard quality specified in 130.14(a) of this chapter, in the manner and form specified in that section; however, if the quality of the canned pineapple falls below standard with respect to only one of the factors of quality specified in paragraph (b)(1)(i) through (vii) of this section, there may be substituted for the second line of the general statement of substandard quality ("Good Food--Not High Grade") one of the following new lines, placed after the corresponding designation of paragraph (b)(1) of this section that the canned pineapple fails to meet:

(i) "Poorly cored" or "Excessive core".

(ii) "Mixed sizes" or "Irregular small pieces", as appropriate.

(iii) "Blemished" or "Contains blemished pieces".

(iv) "Excessively trimmed".

(v) "Mashed units" or "Contains mashed units".

(vi) "Excessively tart".

(vii) "Contains excess liquid".

(c) Fill of Container. (1) The standard of fill of container for canned crushed pineapple is a fill of not less than 90 percent of the total capacity of the container, as determined by the general method for fill of container prescribed in 130.12(b) of this chapter.

(2) If canned crushed pineapple falls below the standard of fill of container prescribed in paragraph (c)(1) of this section, the label shall bear the general statement of substandard fill specified in 130.14(b) of this chapter, in the manner and form therein specified.

[42 FR 14414, Mar. 15, 1977, as amended at 44 FR 40279, July 10, 1979; 45 FR 43391 and 43392, June 27, 1980; 46 FR 57475, Nov. 24, 1981; 48 FR 39916, Sept. 2, 1983; 58 FR 2880, Jan. 6, 1993]

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